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The impact of malaria on anemia and the interplay with helminths underline the importance of addressing the interactions between HIV/AIDS, malaria and intestinal helminth infections in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria-helminth dual infections among HIV positive pregnant mothers after 12 months of ART. A cross(More)
STUDY DESIGN International validation study using self-administered surveys. OBJECTIVES To investigate the utility and reliability of the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain (ISCIP) Classification as used by clinicians. METHODS Seventy-five clinical vignettes (case histories) were prepared by the members of the ISCIP Classification group and assigned(More)
BACKGROUND Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and(More)
BACKGROUND Deworming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be beneficial, particularly during pregnancy. We determined the efficacy of targeted and nontargeted antihelminth therapy and its effects on Plasmodium falciparum infection status, hemoglobin levels, CD4 counts, and viral load in pregnant,(More)
Plasmodium falciparum infection can result in severe disease that is associated with elevated inflammation and vital organ dysfunction; however, malaria-endemic residents gain protection from lethal outcomes and manifest only mild symptoms during infection. To characterize host responses associated with this more effective antimalarial response, we(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium falciparum infection has been reported to increase human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL), which can facilitate HIV transmission. We prospectively studied the impact of mild P falciparum coinfection on HIV VL in Rwanda. METHODS We measured plasma HIV VL at presentation with malaria infection and weekly for 4 weeks after(More)
HIV infected individuals in malaria endemic areas experience more frequent and severe malaria episodes compared to non HIV infected. This clinical observation has been linked to a deficiency in antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens; however, prior studies have only focused on the antibody response to <0.5% of P. falciparum proteins. To obtain(More)
Diarrhea is a leading contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the challenge of blinding most water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions, diarrheal disease outcome measures in WASH intervention trials are subject to potential bias and misclassification. Using the platform of a cluster-randomized controlled trial(More)
In studies of tobramycin an excellent effect was noted against many strains of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus derived from clinical sources. When the susceptibility of the strains to tobramycin was compared with susceptibility to other aminoglycoside antibiotics, tobramycin was clearly the most(More)
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