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Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates l-malic acid through a cytosolic pathway starting from pyruvic acid and involving the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase. In the present study, the role of malate dehydrogenase in the cytosolic pathway was studied. Overexpression of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) under either the strong(More)
Electrophoretic studies of fumarase and nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-malate dehydrogenase were carried out in the fumaric acid-accumulating fungus Rhizopus oryzae. The analyses revealed two fumarase isoenzymes, one localised solely in the cytosol and the other found both in the cytosol and in the mitochondrial fraction. The activity of the cytosolic(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates l-malic acid but only minute amounts of fumaric acid. A 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance study following the label from glucose to l-malic acid indicates that the l-malic acid is synthesized from pyruvic acid via oxaloacetic acid. From this, and from previously published studies, we conclude that a cytosolic reductive(More)
The continuous culture (chemostat) technique was used for the optimization of a medium which supported the production of a high yield spore-crystal preparation ofBacillus thuringiensis (isolate Bt 24) (a maximum of 4 × 109spores/ml) on a pilot-scale. The preparation demonstrated a high insecticidal activity against second-instar larvae ofSpodoptera(More)
Fumarase and aconitase in yeast are dual localized to the cytosol and mitochondria by a similar targeting mechanism. These two tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes are single translation products that are targeted to and processed by mitochondrial processing peptidase in mitochondria prior to distribution. The mechanism includes reverse translocation of a(More)
A successful yeast fermentation for the production of relatively high concentration of ethanol (9% w/v) was carried out using sugar cane segments. Extraction of sugar from segments occurred simultaneously with ethanol formation. The beer produced was transferred to a fresh batch of sugar cane segments and the fermentation cycle was repeated successively(More)
RIC-3 belongs to a conserved family of proteins influencing maturation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). RIC-3 homologues were shown to differently affect different nAChRs. Here we show that coexpression with RIC-3 increases the level of surface expression of DEG-3 while slightly reducing the level of surface expression of DES-2, both subunits(More)
Dioscorea deltoidea cell suspension cultures were grown at initial sucrose concentrations of 35 to 200 g/L. The growth rates were similar (about 0.50 day−1) with all of the initial sugar concentrations examined. The ratio of fresh weight to dry weight of cells was dependent on the initial sugar concentration, however, it remained fairly constant as long as(More)
Brain function depends on a delicate balance between excitation and inhibition. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans motor system function depends on a precise balance between excitation and inhibition, as C. elegans muscles receive both inhibitory, GABAergic and excitatory, cholinergic inputs from motor neurons. Here we show that phosphorylation of the(More)
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