Emiko Kasahara

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Phthalate esters have been used extensively as plasticizers of synthetic polymers. Recent studies have revealed that these esters induce atrophy of the testis, although its pathogenesis remains unknown. The present study describes the possible involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of atrophy of the rat testis induced by(More)
Among the critical antioxidant enzymes that protect the cells against oxidative stress are superoxide dismutases: CuZnSOD (Sod1) and MnSOD (Sod2). The latter is also implicated in apoptosis. To determine the importance of these enzymes in protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lens, we analysed DNA strand breaks in lens epithelium from(More)
PURPOSE Oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in many diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is considered a primary target. Because manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), localized in mitochondria, is known to be a key enzyme that protects the cells against(More)
Although S-nitrosoglutathione (GS-NO) and other S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO) exhibit activity attributable to nitric oxide (NO), the dynamic aspects of their metabolism remain to be elucidated. To determine the fates and functions of RS-NO, the stability of GS-NO was analyzed in plasma, and various fractions of liver and kidney. GS-NO was fairly stable under(More)
OBJECTIVE Although psychological and/or physiological stress has been well documented to influence immune responses, the precise mechanism for immunomodulation remains to be elucidated. The present work describes the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the mechanism of stress-mediated enhanced-resistance to lethality after(More)
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, yet the mechanism of action involved is not completely understood. Because cigarette smoke contains superoxide and other reactive oxygen species, it has been hypothesized that some of the adverse effects of smoking may result from oxidative damage to(More)
We investigated the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using RAW 264.7 cells and their ρ(o) cells lacking mitochondria. Mitochondrial density, respiratory activity and related proteins in ρ(o) cells were significantly lower than those in RAW cells. LPS rapidly stimulated(More)
The gender difference in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in human neutrophils stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was explored by using peripheral blood neutrophils from young men and women. As compared with female neutrophils, male neutrophils released greater amounts of TNF-α, and exhibited stronger activation of(More)
Although photoexcited TiO2 has been known to initiate various chemical reactions, such as the generation of reactive oxygen species, precise mechanism and chemical nature of the generated species remain to be elucidated. The present work demonstrates the generation of singlet oxygen by irradiated TiO2 in ethanol as measured by ESR spectroscopy using(More)
Although triorganotins are potent inducers of apoptosis in various cell types, the critical targets of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they lead to cell death remain to be elucidated. There are two major pathways by which apoptotic cell death occurs: one is triggered by a cytokine mediator and the other is by a mitochondrion-dependent mechanism.(More)