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Phthalate esters have been used extensively as plasticizers of synthetic polymers. Recent studies have revealed that these esters induce atrophy of the testis, although its pathogenesis remains unknown. The present study describes the possible involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of atrophy of the rat testis induced by(More)
PURPOSE Oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in many diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is considered a primary target. Because manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), localized in mitochondria, is known to be a key enzyme that protects the cells against(More)
alpha-Tocopherol is a potent antioxidant that effectively protects biological membranes against oxidative injury through coordination with ascorbic acid. Because propofol has a phenolic structure similar to that of alpha-tocopherol, this intravenous anesthetic may also have similar antioxidant activity. To test this hypothesis, the effect of propofol on(More)
Among the critical antioxidant enzymes that protect the cells against oxidative stress are superoxide dismutases: CuZnSOD (Sod1) and MnSOD (Sod2). The latter is also implicated in apoptosis. To determine the importance of these enzymes in protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lens, we analysed DNA strand breaks in lens epithelium from(More)
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, yet the mechanism of action involved is not completely understood. Because cigarette smoke contains superoxide and other reactive oxygen species, it has been hypothesized that some of the adverse effects of smoking may result from oxidative damage to(More)
We previously reported that topical irradiation of the eye by ultraviolet-B (UVB) activated hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A) of the mouse to increase 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-positive melanocytes in the skin by an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent mechanism. This work demonstrates that irradiation of the eye by(More)
Although chemotherapy is an important method for the treatment of patients with cancer, its efficacy is limited because of different sensitivities of tumor cells to anticancer agents and/or side effects on normal tissues. The present work demonstrates that mitochondria play a crucial role in the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by anticancer agents that(More)
Mammalian tissues have large amounts of available ATP which are generated by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. For the maintenance of the human body, a large amount of oxygen is required to regenerate these ATP molecules. A small fraction of the inspired oxygen is converted to superoxide radical and related metabolites even under physiological(More)
Although triorganotins are potent inducers of apoptosis in various cell types, the critical targets of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they lead to cell death remain to be elucidated. There are two major pathways by which apoptotic cell death occurs: one is triggered by a cytokine mediator and the other is by a mitochondrion-dependent mechanism.(More)