Emiel R. van der Graaf

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The first national radon survey in The Netherlands was conducted in 1984 with passive radon dosimeters that contain glass-fiber diffusion filters. During the last few years, measurements of outdoor-radon concentrations and information in the literature suggested to us that these dosimeters may give falsely elevated readings. A systematic contribution would(More)
AGORFIRM is an activity of the KVI, a cyclotron laboratory in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Central in the institute is the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. AGORFIRM is a facility that uses a dedicated beam line of the AGOR cyclotron for irradiations with protons and carbon ions in air. The facility is on a regular basis available for radiation(More)
The present study reports on results of a nation-wide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra, Ra, Th, and K and for their Rn exhalation rate. The sampled materials consisted of gypsum(More)
OBJECTIVES Typical streak artifacts known as metal artifacts occur in the presence of strongly attenuating materials in computed tomography (CT). Recently, vendors have started offering metal artifact reduction (MAR) techniques. In addition, a MAR technique called the metal deletion technique (MDT) is freely available and able to reduce metal artifacts(More)
The calibration of scintillation detectors for gamma radiation in a well characterized setup can be transferred to other geometries using Monte Carlo simulations to account for the differences between the calibration and the other geometry. In this study a calibration facility was used that is constructed from bricks of well-known activity concentrations of(More)
This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building materials. To reach this goal, a number of experiments have to be(More)
Diffusive transport of radon in a moisturized sand column was investigated under well-defined and controlled conditions using a laboratory facility that consists of a cylindrical vessel (height and diameter 2 m) filled with sand. Equilibrium pore-gas radon-concentration profiles in the sand column were measured as a function of depth for several different(More)
Proton radiography is a novel imaging modality that allows direct measurement of the proton energy loss in various tissues. Currently, due to the conversion of so-called Hounsfield units from X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) into relative proton stopping powers (RPSP), the uncertainties of RPSP are 3-5% or higher, which need to be minimized down to 1% to make(More)
Ten sections of dentine, cut perpendicular to the dentinal tubules, from human mature non-carious third molars were freeze-dried and then rehydrated by immersion in water. The uptake of water by the sections was determined as a function of time by weighing. Rehydration was complete. On the basis of 3 theoretical models the uptake could be described by a(More)
PURPOSE Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was(More)