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This article describes a new approach to the generation of referring expressions. We propose to formalize a scene (consisting of a set of objects with various properties and relations) as a labeled directed graph and describe content selection (which properties to include in a referring expression) as a subgraph construction problem. Cost functions are used(More)
This article offers a survey of computational research on referring expressions generation (REG). It introduces the REG problem and describes early work in this area, discussing what basic assumptions lie behind it, and showing how its remit has widened in recent years. We discuss computational frameworks underlying REG, and demonstrate a recent trend that(More)
In this paper we describe a method for simplifying sentences using Phrase Based Machine Translation, augmented with a re-ranking heuristic based on dissimilarity, and trained on a monolingual parallel corpus. We compare our system to a word-substitution baseline and two state-of-the-art systems, all trained and tested on paired sentences from the English(More)
Speakers may use pitch accents as pointers to new information, or as signals of a contrast relation between the accented item and a limited set of alternatives. There is no consensus in the literature whether a separately identiiable contrastive accent exists. Some studies report that contrastive accents are more emphatic than newness accents and have a(More)
Sentence fusion is a text-to-text (revision-like) generation task which takes related sentences as input and merges these into a single output sentence. In this paper we describe our ongoing work on developing a sentence fusion module for Dutch. We propose a generalized version of alignment which not only indicates which words and phrases should be aligned(More)
This paper describes two experiments on the role of audiovisual prosody for signalling and detecting meta-cognitive information in question answering. The Wrst study consists of an experiment, in which participants are asked factual questions in a conversational setting, while they are being Wlmed. Statistical analyses bring to light that the speakers'(More)
Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology , errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication, dialogue participants are continuously sending and receiving(More)
In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of normalized alignment of dependency trees for entailment prediction. Overall, our approach yields an accuracy of 60% on the RTE2 test set, which is a significant improvement over the baseline. Results vary substantially across the different subsets, with a peak performance on the summarization data. We conclude(More)
This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly include a(More)