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Hebb's rule (1949) states that learning and memory are based on modifications of synaptic strength among neurons that are simultaneously active. This implies that enhanced synaptic coincidence detection would lead to better learning and memory. If the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, a synaptic coincidence detector, acts as a graded switch for memory(More)
Protein kinases have proved to be largely resistant to the design of highly specific inhibitors, even with the aid of combinatorial chemistry. The lack of these reagents has complicated efforts to assign specific signalling roles to individual kinases. Here we describe a chemical genetic strategy for sensitizing protein kinases to cell-permeable molecules(More)
We produced CA1-specific NMDA receptor 1 subunit-knockout (CA1-KO) mice to determine the NMDA receptor dependence of nonspatial memory formation and of experience-induced structural plasticity in the CA1 region. CA1-KO mice were profoundly impaired in object recognition, olfactory discrimination and contextual fear memories. Surprisingly, these deficits(More)
The hippocampal CA1 region is crucial for converting new memories into long-term memories, a process believed to continue for week(s) after initial learning. By developing an inducible, reversible, and CA1-specific knockout technique, we could switch N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function off or on in CA1 during the consolidation period. Our data(More)
We have analyzed the developmental molecular programs of the mouse hippocampus, a cortical structure critical for learning and memory, by means of large-scale DNA microarray techniques. Of 11,000 genes and expressed sequence tags examined, 1,926 showed dynamic changes during hippocampal development from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 30. Gene-cluster(More)
Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), derived from the venom of solitary wasp has been known to facilitate synaptic transmission in the lobster neuromuscular junction, and a recent further study from rat trigeminal neurons revealed that the toxin slows Na+ channel inactivation without modifying activation process. Here we report that beta-PMTX modifies rat brain type II(More)
Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa), which binds to its receptor neogenin, has been well determined as a repulsive axon guidance molecule. However, whether RGMa affects the growth of hippocampal mossy fibers, the axons of dentate granule cells, has been unknown. In the present study, we found that the primary neurons in the hippocampus express both RGMa(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays a critical role in parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced bone resorption. PTH acts via protein kinase A (PKA) to phosphorylate and stimulate the transactivation of Runx2 for MMP-13 promoter activation. We show here that PTH stimulated Runx2 phosphorylation in rat osteoblastic cells. Runx2 was phosphorylated on serine(More)
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