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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
GATA factors interact with simple DNA motifs (WGATAR) to regulate critical processes, including hematopoiesis, but very few WGATAR motifs are occupied in genomes. Given the rudimentary knowledge of mechanisms underlying this restriction and how GATA factors establish genetic networks, we used ChIP-seq to define GATA-1 and GATA-2 occupancy genome-wide in(More)
Interplay among GATA transcription factors is an important determinant of cell fate during hematopoiesis. Although GATA-2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function, mechanisms controlling GATA-2 expression are undefined. Of particular interest is the repression of GATA-2, because sustained GATA-2 expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells alters(More)
Molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation of hematopoietic and endothelial cells from mesoderm are poorly understood. To define the underlying mechanisms, we compared gene expression profiles between embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived hemangioblasts (Blast-Colony-Forming Cells, BL-CFCs) and their differentiated progeny, Blast cells. Bioinformatic(More)
The abundance of crystallins (> 80% of the soluble protein) in the ocular lens provides advantageous markers for selective gene expression during cellular differentiation. Here we show by functional and protein-DNA binding experiments that the chicken alpha A-crystallin gene is regulated by at least five control elements located at sites A (-148 to -139), B(More)
The reciprocal expression of GATA-1 and GATA-2 during hematopoiesis is an important determinant of red blood cell development. Whereas Gata2 is preferentially transcribed early in hematopoiesis, elevated GATA-1 levels result in GATA-1 occupancy at sites upstream of the Gata2 locus and transcriptional repression. GATA-2 occupies these sites in the(More)
The ChIP-seq technique enables genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions and chromatin states. Current analytical approaches for ChIP-seq analysis are largely geared towards single-sample investigations, and have limited applicability in comparative settings that aim to identify combinatorial patterns of enrichment across multiple datasets. We(More)
Mammalian organogenesis results from the concerted actions of signaling pathways in progenitor cells that induce a hierarchy of regulated transcription factors critical for organ and cell type determination. Here we demonstrate that sustained Notch activity is required for the temporal maintenance of specific cohorts of proliferating progenitors, which(More)
Increased alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) dosage due to locus multiplication causes autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Variation in SNCA expression may be critical in common, genetically complex PD but the underlying regulatory mechanism is unknown. We show that SNCA and the heme metabolism genes ALAS2, FECH, and BLVRB form a block of tightly(More)