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Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. We report the nucleotide sequence and expression of an immunodominant antigen of H. pylori and the immune response to the antigen during disease. The antigen, named CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A), is a hydrophilic, surface-exposed protein of 128 kDa(More)
The protein toxin VacA, produced by cytotoxic strains of Helicobacter pylori, causes a vacuolar degeneration of cells, which eventually die. VacA is strongly activated by a short exposure to acidic solutions in the pH 1.5-5.5 range, followed by neutralization. Activated VacA has different CD and fluorescence spectra and a limited proteolysis fragmentation(More)
We have attempted to express the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin in Escherichia coli. Although the 95-kDa VacA polypeptide was expressed abundantly, it completely lacked any biological activity. In addition, this material failed to induce neutralizing antibodies after immunization of rabbits. In contrast, highly purified high-molecular-mass(More)
The VacA cytotoxin, produced by toxigenic strains of Helicobacter pylori, induces the formation of large vacuoles highly enriched in the small GTPase rab7. To probe the role of rab7 in vacuolization, HeLa cells were transfected with a series of rab mutants and exposed to VacA. Dominant-negative mutants of rab7 effectively prevented vacuolization, whereas(More)
Cytotoxic strains of Helicobacter pylori cause an intense vacuolar degeneration of cells, due to the enlargement of late endosomes in the presence of membrane permeant weak bases. Bafilomycins, specific inhibitors of the vacuolar-type (V-) ATPase proton pump, prevent vacuole formation. The presence of the V-ATPase on vacuolar membranes was demonstrated by(More)
The herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase consists of a catalytic subunit (POL or UL30) and a processivity factor (UL42). The POL/UL42 interaction, which occurs through the extreme C-terminus of POL, is essential for HSV-1 replication and thus represents a valid target for drug inhibition. We recently showed (A. Loregian et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad.(More)
The effects of the vacuolating toxin (VacA) released by pathogenic strains of Helicobacter pylori on several polarized epithelial monolayers were investigated. Trans-epithelial electric resistance (TER) of monolayers formed by canine kidney MDCK I, human gut T84, and murine mammary gland epH4, was lowered by acid-activated VacA. Independent of the cell type(More)
The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin plays a major role in the gastric pathologies associated with this bacterium. When added to cultured cells, VacA induces vacuolation, an effect potentiated by preexposure of the toxin to low pH. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We report here that VacA forms anion-selective, voltage-dependent pores in artificial(More)
The Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA causes vacuolar degeneration in mammalian cell lines in vitro and plays a key role in peptic ulcer disease. Two alleles, m1 and m2, of the mid-region of the vacA gene have been described, and the m2 cytotoxin always has been described as inactive in the in vitro HeLa cell assay. However, the m2 allele is associated with(More)
Cells exposed to Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA develop large vacuoles that originate from massive swelling of membranous compartments of late stages of the endocytic pathway. To determine if the toxin is active from the cell cytosol, cells were either microinjected with toxin or transfected with plasmids encoding VacA. Both procedures cause formation of(More)