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OBJECTIVE To assess gender differences in the long-term clinical, virological and immunological outcomes during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS This longitudinal observational multicentre study followed 2460 HIV-infected patients who had begun a protease inhibitor-based regimen for a median period of 43 months. Outcome measures were(More)
HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are leading global causes of mortality and morbidity. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is often initiated in patients being treated for TB. The immune recovery associated with HAART results in dramatic clinical benefits, but this restoration of immunity may result in immunopathological reactions. The immune(More)
BACKGROUND Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), morbidity and mortality rates have sharply decreased among HIV-infected patients. Studies of possible differences between men and women in the course of HIV infection give conflicting results. The objective of this study was to assess sex differences during HAART. METHODS A(More)
BACKGROUND In western countries, human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) appears to be transmitted mainly by sexual contact. To evaluate the role of other transmission routes, especially in developing countries, we estimated the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in Egyptian children, who, if seropositive, would have acquired the virus through a nonsexual route. METHODS Sera(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is increased severalfold in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has also been implicated in KS. We investigated several factors that may determine the onset of KS, particularly HHV8 infection in individuals after becoming seropositive for HIV. METHODS(More)
The duration of the clinical, virologic, and immunologic response to HAART, is not well defined. In this observational multi-center study 2,143 patients were enrolled classified according to virologic suppression (<500 cp/ml) and immune recovery (>100 CD4+ cells/mul from baseline) at month 12 of HAART as complete responders, virologic only responders,(More)
The fitness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vivo depends on the interaction of a multitude of viral and host factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the biological phenotype and the intrinsic capacity of the HIV isolates with drug-resistance mutations to replicate efficiently in the absence of drugs. An open label multicenter cross-sectional(More)
Improvements in HIV-RNA assays have made accurate detection of as few as 2 copies/ml possible. This study objective was the evaluation of ultrasensitive HIV-RNA quantitation (beneath current threshold: 50 copies/ml) in patients receiving different antiretroviral regimens. A cross-sectional, ultrasensitive measurement of HIV-RNA levels (detection limit: 2.5(More)
The rate of HIV-positive patients that fails to reach or to maintain a durable virological suppression under anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy might be as high as 50%, therefore new tools to improve ARV drug efficacy are urgently needed. Among others, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a strategy by which the dosing regimen for a patient is guided by(More)
Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases not responsive to first-line regimens. Data on the safety of anti-TNF-α in HIV-infected patients are scarce and conflicting. We describe a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure that occurred after etanercept initiation and influenza vaccination in an(More)