Emanuela Reale

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This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of national research policies during the past three decades in six European countries (Austria, Italy, France, Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland), with a special focus on the changes of public project funding schemes. It systematically uses indicators on the volume of funding attributed by each(More)
Replicas of the perineurium of rabbit sciatic nerve fascicles show extensive zonulae occludentes between the flattened cells of each perineuriallamella. The junctions formed by the zonulae occludentes are of the morphologically 'tight' type. Therefore, theyare likely to represent the anatomical site of the diffusion barrier previously demonstrated by other(More)
The junctions between the cells of the organ of Corti have been investigated with the freeze-fracture method in the chinchilla inner ear. Numerous gap junctions have been found among all the supporting cells, particularly at the level of their basal part. This means that the supporting cells have their cytoplasm electrotonically and metabolically coupled.(More)
Nations, universities, and regional governments commit resources to promote the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. One focuses on knowledge-based innovations and the economic function of the university in terms of technology transfer, intellectual property, university-industry-government relations, etc. Faculties other than engineering or(More)
Despite its relevance for research funding, few comparable data are available in official R&D statistics on the amount and composition of project funding. This paper discusses in detail the methodology developed in the European Network of Excellence on Research and Innovation Policies PRIME for systematically producing indicators on public project funding(More)
Using the freeze-fracture technique communicating junctions could be identified between the cells of the adult human sensory retina. Communicating junctions with particles arranged in linear or circular rows as well as in small aggregates were found between adjacent photoreceptor endings. Communicating junctions with particles forming plaques were localized(More)
The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption worsens the evolution of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are poorly understood. We have investigated the possible interaction between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and ethanol in promoting oxidative stress. Circulating IgG against human serum albumin (HSA) adducted with malondialdehyde (MDA-HSA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-HSA),(More)
It is current opinion that the intercellular spaces of the stria vascularis represent a closed compartment isolated from the endolymph by the tight junctions of the marginal cells and from the perilymph by the junctional complexes of the basel cells. However, it has not yet been investigated whether these two barriers meet at the stria margins toward(More)
Ridges and grooves composing extensive zonulae occludentes are revealed by the freeze-fracture method on split myelin lamellae in the nerve fibre layer of the retina and in the optic nerve of the rabbit. The junctions are located immediately internal to the outer loop of the myelin sheath and in corresponding areas of deeper myelin layers. They follow a(More)
Rat kidneys were perfused with fixative solutions containing either a) a polycationic dye (Alcian blue 8 GX, Astra blue 6 GLL, cuprolinic blue, ruthenium red), b) a monocationic dye (safranine 0), or c) Alcian blue in the presence of a 0.3 M MgCl2 concentration. Whereas solutions of a revealed the glomerular basement membrane proteoglycans as particles or(More)