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Swine influenza viruses possessing avian genes were first detected in Europe in 1979 (Scholtissek et al., 1983, Virology, 129, 521-523) and continue to circulate in pigs in that region of the world. To characterize the molecular epidemiology of swine influenza viruses currently circulating in Europe, we used dot-blot hybridization and sequence analysis to(More)
The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1], [2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and(More)
In Italy, multiple H3N2 influenza viruses were isolated from chickens with mild respiratory disease and were shown to replicate in the respiratory tracts of experimentally infected chickens; this finding is the first to show that H3N2 influenza viruses can replicate and cause disease in chickens. H3N2 influenza viruses in pigs on nearby farms seemed a(More)
We report herein on the first serological detection of antibodies to bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in Italy. According to criteria of a stratified-random sampling of dairy cattle reared in the Parma area (a province in the Po Valley, Northern Italy), sera from 3166 cows belonging to 272 herds were collected. In addition, sera of 138 bulls from eight(More)
Three subtypes of influenza A viruses, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, co-evolve in pigs in Europe. H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in France and Italy since 1997 were closely related to the H1N2 viruses which emerged in the UK in 1994. In particular, the close relationship of the neuraminidases (NAs) of these viruses to the NA of a previous UK H3N2 swine virus(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are now endemic in many Asian countries, resulting in repeated outbreaks in poultry and increased cases of human infection. The immediate precursor of these HPAI viruses is believed to be A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD)-like H5N1 HPAI viruses first detected in Guangdong, China, in 1996. From 2000 onwards,(More)
Two epidemics of avian influenza due to H5 and H7 highly pathogenic viruses occurred in poultry in Italy in 1997/98 and 1999/2000, respectively. The circulation of these serotypes in wild aquatic birds was investigated examining 638 cloacal swabs and 621 sera collected from 150 gulls, 162 coots, and 326 ducks trapped in Italian wetlands from 1998 to 2000.(More)
This study presents the results of the virological surveillance for swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in Belgium, UK, Italy, France and Spain from 2006 to 2008. Our major aims were to clarify the occurrence of the three SIV subtypes - H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 - at regional levels, to identify novel reassortant viruses and to antigenically compare SIVs with human(More)
OBJECTIVES Avian-like H1N1 and human-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been considered widespread among pigs in Western Europe since the 1980s, and a novel H1N2 reassortant with a human-like H1 emerged in the mid 1990s. This study, which was part of the EC-funded 'European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs 1', aimed to determine the(More)