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Avian bipedalism is best studied in derived walking/running specialists. Here, we use kinematics and center of mass (CoM) mechanical energy patterns to investigate gait transitions of lapwings-migratory birds that forage on the ground, and therefore may need a trade-off between the functional demands of terrestrial locomotion and long distance flights. The(More)
A crucial aspect of comparative biomechanical research is the center of mass (CoM) estimation in animal locomotion scenarios. Important applications include the parameter estimation of locomotion models, the discrimination of gaits, or the calculation of mechanical work during locomotion. Several methods exist to approximate the CoM position, e.g.(More)
Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with(More)
Previous research has resulted in increasing insight into neuro-mechanical control strategies during perturbed locomotion. In contrast, more general analyses on simple model (template)-related parameters during avian terrestrial locomotion are still rare. Quail kinematic data obtained using X-ray videography combined with ground reaction force measurements(More)
Devonian stem tetrapods are thought to have used ‘crutching’ on land, a belly-dragging form of synchronous forelimb action-powered locomotion. During the Early Carboniferous, early tetrapods underwent rapid radiation, and the terrestrial locomotion of crown-group node tetrapods is believed to have been hindlimb-powered and ‘raised’, involving symmetrical(More)
Sloths are morphologically specialized in suspensory quadrupedal locomotion and posture. During steady-state locomotion they utilize a trot-like footfall sequence. Contrasting the growing amount of published accounts of the functional morphology and kinematics of sloth locomotion, no study concerned with the dynamics of their quadrupedal suspensory(More)
Differing limb proportions in terms of length and mass, as well as differences in mass being concentrated proximally or distally, influence the limb's moment of inertia (MOI), which represents its resistance to being swung. Limb morphology - including limb segment proportions - thus probably has direct relevance for the metabolic cost of swinging the limb(More)
Head-bobbing in birds is a conspicuous behaviour related to vision comprising a hold phase and a thrust phase. The timing of these phases has been shown in many birds, including quail, to be coordinated with footfall during locomotion. We were interested in the biomechanics behind this phenomenon. During terrestrial locomotion in birds, the trunk is(More)
In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on leg function and stability during(More)