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The Volcano clawed frog Xenopus amieti Kobel, du Pasquier, Fischberg, and Gloor, 1980, with a chromosome number of 2n=72, is believed to have undergone two rounds of genome duplication since evolving from a diploid ancestor. Nine peptides with differential antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from(More)
Brevinin-2 related peptide (B2RP; GIWDTIKSMG(10)KVFAGKILQN(20)L.NH(2)), first isolated from skin secretions of the mink frog Lithobates septentrionalis, shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but its therapeutic potential is limited by moderate hemolytic activity. The peptide adopts an alpha-helical conformation in a membrane-mimetic solvent but(More)
Nine peptides with differential growth inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus borealis Parker, 1936 (Pipidae). Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they were orthologous to magainin-2 (1 peptide), peptide(More)
Population declines due to chytridiomycosis among frogs belonging to the Amerana (Rana boylii) species group from western North America have been particularly severe. Norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the Oregon spotted frog Rana pretiosa Baird and Girard, 1853 were collected from individuals that had been previously infected with the causative(More)
The Cascades frog Rana cascadae belongs to the Amerana (or Rana boylii) group that includes six additional species from western North America (R. aurora, R. boylii, R. draytonii, R. luteiventris, R. muscosa, and R. pretiosa). R. cascadae is particularly susceptible to pathogenic microorganisms in the environment and populations have declined precipitously(More)
Six structurally similar and strongly cationic peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 family were isolated from skin secretions of the plains leopard frog Lithobates blairi and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates yavapaiensis on the basis of their antimicrobial activities. Brevinin-1BLc (FLPIIAGIAAKFLPKIFCTISKKC) from L. blairi represented the most potent(More)
INTRODUCTION Interleukin (IL)-18 is a well-known major proinflammatory cytokine with broad biological effects. The major immunomodulatory functions of IL-18 include enhancing T cell and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Serum levels of this cytokine were shown to increase in chronic hepatitis C patients compared to non-infected healthy people. An(More)
Mueller's clawed frog Xenopus muelleri (Peters 1844) occupies two non-contiguous ranges in east and west Africa. The phylogenetic relationship between the two populations is unclear and it has been proposed that the western population represents a separate species. Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from X. muelleri from the(More)
Five peptides with antimicrobial activity were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus clivii Peracca, 1898 (Pipidae). Characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they are structurally similar to magainins (2 peptides), caerulein-precursor fragments, CPF (2 peptides), and xenopsin-precursor fragments,(More)
Temporin-1DRa (HFLGTLVNLAKKIL.NH(2)), first isolated from the skin of the California red-legged frog Rana draytonii, shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but its therapeutic potential is limited by its toxicity against mammalian cells. The cytolytic properties of cationic alpha-helical peptides are determined by a complex interaction between(More)