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BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Sunscreen efficacy is usually expressed by the sun protection factor (SPF) which is calculated by establishing the minimum erythematous dose (MED), i.e. the smallest amount of energy required to trigger erythema. Efforts have been made to harmonise SPF testing but in vivo SPF methodology could still be improved to reduce its variability.(More)
This paper introduces an alternative bat algorithm based on modifying the rules of the standard Bat Algorithm. The proposed algorithm gives better results compared with other known algorithms in the literature. The study considers five of the well known unconstrained benchmarking problems. The results of the proposed modification, standard Bat Algorithm,(More)
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