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NAMD is a parallel molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large biomolecular systems. NAMD scales to hundreds of processors on high-end parallel platforms, as well as tens of processors on low-cost commodity clusters, and also runs on individual desktop and laptop computers. NAMD works with AMBER and CHARMM potential functions,(More)
We discuss the difference between osmotic permeability pf and diffusion permeability pd of single-file water channels and demonstrate that the pf/pd ratio corresponds to the number of effective steps a water molecule needs to take to permeate a channel. While pd can be directly obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, pf can be best(More)
Water permeation through nanometric channels, generally a coupled many-body process, is described in this study by a single collective coordinate. A collective diffusion model is proposed in which water movement at equilibrium is characterized as an unbiased diffusion along this coordinate and water transport in the presence of a chemical potential(More)
The atomic models of the Kv1.2 potassium channel in the active and resting state, originally presented elsewhere, are here refined using molecular dynamics simulations in an explicit membrane-solvent environment. With a minor adjustment of the orientation of the first arginine along the S4 segment, the total gating charge of the channel determined from >0.5(More)
The aquaporin-1 water channel was modeled in a palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline lipid bilayer, by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Interaction of the protein with the membrane and inter-monomer interactions were analyzed. Structural features of the channel important for its biological function, including the Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) motifs, and the(More)
The planarity of the polyene chain of the retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin is studied using molecular dynamics simulation techniques and applying different force-field parameters and starting crystal structures. The largest deviations from a planar structure are observed for the C(13)==C(14) and C(15)==N(16) double bonds in the retinal Schiff base(More)
Plants counteract fluctuations in water supply by regulating all aquaporins in the cell plasma membrane. Channel closure results either from the dephosphorylation of two conserved serine residues under conditions of drought stress, or from the protonation of a conserved histidine residue following a drop in cytoplasmic pH due to anoxia during flooding. Here(More)
Aquaporins are transmembrane channels found in cell membranes of all life forms. We examine their apparently paradoxical property, facilitation of efficient permeation of water while excluding protons, which is of critical importance to preserving the electrochemical potential across the cell membrane. We have determined the structure of the Escherichia(More)
Jarzynski's equality is applied to free energy calculations from steered molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules. The helix-coil transition of deca-alanine in vacuum is used as an example. With about ten trajectories sampled, the second order cumulant expansion, among the various averaging schemes examined, yields the most accurate estimates. We(More)
Membrane transporters rely on highly coordinated structural transitions between major conformational states for their function, to prevent simultaneous access of the substrate binding site to both sides of the membrane--a mode of operation known as the alternating access model. Although this mechanism successfully accounts for the efficient exchange of the(More)