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NAMD is a parallel molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large biomolecular systems. NAMD scales to hundreds of processors on high-end parallel platforms, as well as tens of processors on low-cost commodity clusters, and also runs on individual desktop and laptop computers. NAMD works with AMBER and CHARMM potential functions,(More)
We discuss the difference between osmotic permeability pf and diffusion permeability pd of single-file water channels and demonstrate that the pf/pd ratio corresponds to the number of effective steps a water molecule needs to take to permeate a channel. While pd can be directly obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, pf can be best(More)
Water permeation through nanometric channels, generally a coupled many-body process, is described in this study by a single collective coordinate. A collective diffusion model is proposed in which water movement at equilibrium is characterized as an unbiased diffusion along this coordinate and water transport in the presence of a chemical potential(More)
The atomic models of the Kv1.2 potassium channel in the active and resting state, originally presented elsewhere, are here refined using molecular dynamics simulations in an explicit membrane-solvent environment. With a minor adjustment of the orientation of the first arginine along the S4 segment, the total gating charge of the channel determined from >0.5(More)
The aquaporin-1 water channel was modeled in a palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline lipid bilayer, by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Interaction of the protein with the membrane and inter-monomer interactions were analyzed. Structural features of the channel important for its biological function, including the Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) motifs, and the(More)
Aquaporins are transmembrane channels found in cell membranes of all life forms. We examine their apparently paradoxical property, facilitation of efficient permeation of water while excluding protons, which is of critical importance to preserving the electrochemical potential across the cell membrane. We have determined the structure of the Escherichia(More)
Jarzynski's equality is applied to free energy calculations from steered molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules. The helix-coil transition of deca-alanine in vacuum is used as an example. With about ten trajectories sampled, the second order cumulant expansion, among the various averaging schemes examined, yields the most accurate estimates. We(More)
The recent availability of high-resolution structures of two structurally highly homologous, but functionally distinct aquaporins from the same species, namely Escherichia coli AqpZ, a pure water channel, and GlpF, a glycerol channel, presents a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism of substrate selectivity in these channels. Comparison of the free(More)
While substrate permeation through monomeric pores of aquaporins is well characterized, little is known about the possible tetrameric pore. AQP1 has been suggested to function as an ion channel upon cGMP activation, although this idea has been controversial. Taking a theoretical and experimental approach, we demonstrate that the current might arise through(More)
Voltage sensor domains (VSD) are transmembrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane voltage and modulate the activity of ion channels, enzymes, or in the case of proton channels allow permeation of protons across the cell membrane. VSDs consist of four transmembrane segments, S1-S4, forming an antiparallel helical bundle. The S4 segment contains(More)