Emília Valadas

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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
SETTING One important aspect of macrophage function is the production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn affect the survival of intracellular organisms such as mycobacteria. OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between phagocytosis of mycobacteria and expression of intracellular cytokines. DESIGN Phagocytosis and cytokine(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Western Europe, regions with a high incidence of TB usually also have a high incidence of HIV infection; TB and HIV co-infection have increased over the past decade and among HIV infected patients, nearly half also develop TB. In settings where HIV is prevalent, TB drug(More)
OBJECTIVE Hyper-immune activation is a main determinant of HIV disease progression, potentially counter-acted by T-cell inhibitory pathways. Here we investigated, for the first time, inhibitory molecules in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring attenuated form of HIV disease, associated with reduced viremia and very slow rates of CD4 T-cell decline. (More)
OBJECTIVES Despite a decreasing mortality and morbidity in treated HIV-1 patients, highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) can still fail due to the development of drug resistance. Especially, multidrug-resistant viruses pose a threat to efficient therapy. We studied the changing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) over time in a cohort of(More)
Our aim was to characterize for the first time the genetic diversity of HIV in Cape Verde Islands as well as the drug resistance profiles in treated and untreated patients. Blood specimens were collected from 41 HIV-1 and 14 HIV-2 patients living in Santiago Island. Half of the patients were on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Pol and env gene sequences were(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate mutations selected in viruses from HIV-2-infected patients failing a highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimen including atazanavir/ritonavir. METHODS Twenty-eight HIV-2-infected patients previously exposed to atazanavir/ritonavir and failing therapy were studied. The protease (PR) gene was amplified and sequenced,(More)
icterus developed, and the patient died of shock and multiorgan failure 9 hours after hospitalization, despite treatment with a mixture of antibiotics, which contained doxycycline. Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were isolated by the shell vial technique from the blood of the three patients. Sequences of polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments(More)
Several new methods of malaria diagnosis have recently been developed, but these all rely on clinical suspicion and, consequently, an explicit clinical request. Although some methods lend themselves to automation (eg. PCR), no technique can yet be used for routine clinical automated screening. Detection of birefringent haemozoin has been used to diagnose(More)