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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
SETTING One important aspect of macrophage function is the production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn affect the survival of intracellular organisms such as mycobacteria. OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between phagocytosis of mycobacteria and expression of intracellular cytokines. DESIGN Phagocytosis and cytokine(More)
INTRODUCTION Recent data indicates that low vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels can lead to a worst prognosis in HIV-infected individuals, even in those on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) [1]. Portugal is the European country that has the largest average sun exposure time but prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is mostly unknown. Our aim was to determine the(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Western Europe, regions with a high incidence of TB usually also have a high incidence of HIV infection; TB and HIV co-infection have increased over the past decade and among HIV infected patients, nearly half also develop TB. In settings where HIV is prevalent, TB drug(More)
OBJECTIVE Hyper-immune activation is a main determinant of HIV disease progression, potentially counter-acted by T-cell inhibitory pathways. Here we investigated, for the first time, inhibitory molecules in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring attenuated form of HIV disease, associated with reduced viremia and very slow rates of CD4 T-cell decline. (More)
Viremia is significantly lower in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infection, irrespective of disease stage. Nevertheless, the comparable proviral DNA burdens observed for these two infections indicate similar numbers of infected cells. Here we investigated this apparent paradox by assessing cell-associated viral replication. We found that untreated HIV-1-positive(More)
Monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are important orchestrators of innate and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific immune responses and of the generalized inflammation that characterizes AIDS progression. To our knowledge, we are the first to investigate monocyte and mDC imbalances in HIV type 2 (HIV-2)-positive patients, who typically(More)
Several new methods of malaria diagnosis have recently been developed, but these all rely on clinical suspicion and, consequently, an explicit clinical request. Although some methods lend themselves to automation (eg. PCR), no technique can yet be used for routine clinical automated screening. Detection of birefringent haemozoin has been used to diagnose(More)