This work addresses the issues related to network steganography in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN). The proposed communication scheme employs illicit Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum code sequences for the transmission of steganographic data. The presented approach is a compromise between minimising the probability of covert channel… (More)
Methods for embedding secret data are more sophisticated than their ancient predecessors, but the basic principles remain unchanged.
Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors produce seizures and lethality in mammals. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists encourage the investigation of their effects in AChE inhibitor-induced poisonings. In the present study, the effects of dizocilpine (MK-801, 1 mg/kg) or… (More)
Kynurenine aminotransferases are key enzymes for the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist. The study described here examined ontogenic changes of kynurenine aminotransferase I (KAT I) activity and its expression in the chicken retina. KAT I activity measured on embryonic day 16 (E16) was significantly higher than… (More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a broad spectrum antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, preferentially active at the strychnine-insensitive glycine allosteric site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and a noncompetitive antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptor. Animal studies showed that it possesses anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties.… (More)
The present studies sought to determine the concentrations of endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA) and to measure the activity of kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT) I and II in the discrete brain regions of 3- and 6-month old WAG/Rij rats, a genetic model of absence epilepsy. Analogues experiments were performed using age-matched ACI rats, which served as a… (More)
Steganography is a general term referring to all methods for the embedding of additional secret content into some form of carrier, with the aim of concealment of the introduced alterations. The choice of the carrier is nearly unlimited, it may be an ancient piece of parchment, as well as a network protocol header. Inspired by biological phenomena, adopted… (More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a recognized broad-spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors with a particularly high affinity for the glycine co-agonist site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. KYNA is also a putative endogenous neuroprotectant. Recent studies show that KYNA strongly blocks alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine… (More)