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Daily rhythms of changes in axon size and shape are seen in two types of monopolar cell-L1 and L2-that are unique cells within each of the modules or cartridges of the first optic neuropil or lamina in the fly's optic lobe. In the fruit fly Drosophila, L1 and L2's axons swell at the beginning of both day and night, with larger size increases occurring at(More)
Photoreceptors of the fly's compound eye generally show no very obvious daily or circadian rhythms, a lack which prompted us to examine whether their function might be regulated not in the retina, but at the site of transmission in the first visual neuropile, or lamina. Here, photoreceptor terminals (R1-R6) are reciprocally interconnected with one class of(More)
Screening pigment granules occur in the synaptic terminals of photoreceptors in the fly's (Musca domestica, L.) compound eye. The granules resemble ommochrome granules in the overlying photoreceptor cell body. There are also two types of invagination into receptor terminals: capitate projections (from glial cells) and invaginations from neighboring receptor(More)
The structure of neurons changes during development and in response to injury or alteration in sensory experience. Changes occur in the number, shape, and dimensions of dendritic spines together with their synapses. However, precise data on these changes in response to learning are sparse. Here, we show using quantitative transmission electron microscopy(More)
Axon calibre in monopolar cells L1 and L2 of the fly's lamina can change dynamically. Swelling by day, L2 exhibits a daily rhythm of changing size apparently mediated by wide-field LBO5HT and PDH cells. L1/L2 axon profiles were measured planimetrically in the housefly, Musca domestica, from 1 microns cross sections. Four hours after injecting 80-100 nl of(More)
Long-term memory (LTM) formation has been linked with functional strengthening of existing synapses and other processes including de novo synaptogenesis. However, it is unclear whether synaptogenesis can contribute to LTM formation. Here, using α-calcium/calmodulin kinase II autophosphorylation-deficient (T286A) mutants, we demonstrate that when functional(More)
Circadian rhythms have been shown both in the expression of the period (per) gene in 'lateral neurons' and in cells of the outermost neuropil, or lamina, of the fly's optic lobe. Some lateral neurons also exhibit PDH peptide-like immunoreactivity, arborizing widely throughout the optic lobe. Using confocal microscopy in the housefly, we analysed the size(More)
BACKGROUND In the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system, monopolar cells L1 and L2 and glia show circadian rhythms in morphological plasticity. They change their size and shape during the day and night. The most pronounced changes have been detected in circadian size of the L2 axons. Looking for a functional significance of the circadian(More)
Considerable progress has recently been reported in locating the cellular basis and molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. To advance beyond the clock, towards the outputs that lie between the clock itself and the circadian rhythms in behaviour that it regulates, will present new challenges. This is because(More)
In the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system, two interneurons, L1 and L2 monopolar cells, and epithelial glial cells show circadian rhythms in morphological plasticity. These rhythms depend on clock gene period (per) and cryptochrome (cry) expression. In the present study, we found that rhythms in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster(More)