Elzbieta Bakowska

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BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to recognize nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-resistant HIV-1 strains among a group of therapy-naive patients, and subsequently to guide the choice of antiretroviral therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS HIV strains present in sera of 128 antiretroviral therapy-naive patients were tested for NRTI(More)
BACKGROUND Due to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is relevant to ask whether death rates in optimally treated HIV are higher than the general population. The objective was to compare mortality rates in well controlled HIV-infected adults in the SMART and ESPRIT clinical trials with the general population. METHODS Non-IDUs aged 20-70 years(More)
BACKGROUND This study compared the incidence of fatal and nonfatal AIDS and non-AIDS events in HIV-positive individuals with a CD4 cell count more than 350  cells/μl among viral load strata: low (<500  copies/ml), intermediate (500-9999.9  copies/ml) and high (≥ 10000  copies/ml). METHODS Individuals contributed person-years at risk if their most recent(More)
The authors present a case of severe gonococcal conjunctivitis associated with corneal perforation of the right eye in a 25-year-old homosexual man. Inpatient management and corneal grafting were required. The authors demonstrate that Neisseria gonorrhoea should be considered in the presence of purulent conjunctival discharge with a white patch on the(More)
Effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with virus suppression and immune reconstitution. However, in some patients, this reconstitution is partial or incomplete because CD4(+) cell counts do not increase significantly. This may be due to damage in the microenvironment of lymphoid tissues(More)
Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE(More)
BACKGROUND State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV patients based on four key indicators. METHODS Four indicators of health care were assessed: Compliance with current guidelines on initiation of: 1)(More)
BACKGROUND Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS We did a nested substudy within the(More)
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after exposure to potentially infectious material remains one of the most important elements of HIV prevention. In some cases it requires antiretroviral drugs administration, which might cause serious side effects. The following analysis was performed to identify adverse events of antiretroviral therapy in PEP as well as to(More)
The impact of early ART initiation (versus deferring) on kidney function has not been studied. START was a randomised comparison of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among HIV-positive persons with CD4+ (cells/mm3) counts >500. Serum creatinine and urine dipstick protein were measured at Months 0, 1, 4, 8 and 12, and annually thereafter. The two arms(More)