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OBJECTIVE We used fast-gradient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the longitudinal associations between the hepatic fat content (HFF), glucose homeostasis, and a biomarker of hepatocellular apoptosis in obese youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline and longitudinal liver and abdominal MRI were performed with an oral glucose tolerance test(More)
OBJECTIVE Although metformin (MET) is an insulin sensitizer currently used as an adjunct to the treatment of some of the complications of childhood obesity besides type 2 diabetes mellitus, few studies have comprehensively examined its metabolic and clinical effects in obese children with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS We therefore conducted a(More)
CONTEXT Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a chronic condition with metabolic manifestations spanning the reproductive years. OBJECTIVE We sought to examine glucose metabolism, irrespective of the presence of obesity in a cohort of adolescent girls with PCOS. DESIGN One hundred adolescents were assessed for PCOS in a multi-specialty adolescent PCOS(More)
OBJECTIVE Fructose consumption has risen alongside obesity and diabetes. Gut hormones involved in hunger and satiety (ghrelin and PYY) may respond differently to fructose compared with glucose ingestion. This study evaluated the effects of glucose and fructose ingestion on ghrelin and PYY in lean and obese adolescents with differing insulin sensitivity. (More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS With the increase in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), there is a growing need to understand the effects of intrauterine glucose exposure on the newborn at birth and later in life. The risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in individuals exposed to diabetes in utero has not been adequately investigated. METHODS We studied(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the role of MTNR1B rs10830963 and G6PC2 rs560887 variants in the pathogenesis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in obese adolescents. METHODS A total of 346 Caucasians, 218 African-Americans, and 217 Hispanics obese children and adolescents underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 518 underwent the evaluation of insulin(More)
OBJECTIVE Paralleling the rise of pediatric obesity, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing among youth. In this study, we asked whether the co-occurrence of risk alleles in or near five genes modulating insulin secretion (TCF7L2 rs7903146, IGF2BP2 rs4402960, CDKAL1 rs7754840, HHEX rs1111875, and HNF1A(More)
Objective—To explore the role of MTNR1B rs10830963 and G6PC2 rs560887 variants in the pathogenesis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in obese adolescents. Design and Methods—346 Caucasians, 218 African Americans and 217 Hispanics obese children and adolescents underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 518 underwent the evaluation of insulin(More)
OBJECTIVE Impaired glucose effectiveness (GE) plays a role in the deterioration of glucose metabolism. Our aim was to validate a surrogate of GE derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess the impact of degrees of obesity and of glucose tolerance on it. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The OGTT-derived surrogate of GE (oGE) was validated(More)
Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased(More)