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gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidases (GGTs) are essential for hydrolysis of the tripeptide glutathione (gamma-glutamate-cysteine-glycine) and glutathione S-conjugates since they are the only enzymes known to cleave the amide bond linking the gamma-carboxylate of glutamate to cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four GGT genes have been identified based on homology(More)
Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined(More)
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the primary surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (TAH). We present the case of a 5-month old male with congenital neutropenia who developed severe TAH during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). He had severe OSA, decreased(More)
Radiotherapy is a key component in the treatment of many head and neck cancers, and its potential to cause long-term adverse effects has become increasingly recognized. In this review, we describe the short-term and long-term sequelae of radiation-associated changes in and injury to the temporal bone and its related structures. The pathophysiology of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with nonallergic irritant rhinitis (NAIR) have symptoms of nasal congestion, nasal irritation, rhinorrhea, and sneezing in response to nasal irritants. We currently have no reliable objective means to quantify these patients' subjective symptoms. In this study, we used the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) receptor(More)
The placement of myringotomy tubes remains an effective treatment of recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion. Infants and young children are prone to these entities because of their immature anatomy and immunology. Several host, pathogenic, and environmental factors contribute to the development of these conditions. The(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS To examine our experience with surgically treated radiation-associated malignancy (RAM) of the temporal bone. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective chart review. METHODS Thirteen patients treated surgically for temporal-bone RAM during 1999 to 2012 were identified. Demographics, symptoms at presentation with RAM, interval between initial(More)
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