Elspeth E. Shipton

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INTRODUCTION A number of studies suggest a link between low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and incidence of acute and chronic pain. Clinical studies of vitamin D supplementation in patients with known vitamin D deficiency have shown mixed results in improving pain scores. METHODS In this article, vitamin D deficiency risk factors are observed and adequate(More)
The emergence of new data suggests that the benefits of Vitamin D extend beyond healthy bones. This paper looks at Vitamin D and its role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. The interfaces between pain and Vitamin D and the mechanisms of action of Vitamin D on pain processes are explored. Finally the(More)
INTRODUCTION In the late 1990s multiple physicians and advocacy organizations promoted increased use of opioids for the treatment of acute, chronic and cancer pain. There has been an exponential growth in opioid prescribing in the last 20 years in the United States of America, in Australia, and in other developed Western countries. There are negative(More)
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