Else Marie Friis

Learn More
We present a phylogenetic dating of asterids, based on a 111-taxon tree representing all major groups and orders and 83 of the 102 families of asterids, with an underlying data set comprising six chloroplast DNA markers totaling 9914 positions. Phylogenetic dating was done with semiparametric rate smoothing by penalized likelihood. Confidence intervals were(More)
A molecular dating of the phylogenetically basal eudicots (Ranunculales, Proteales, Sabiales, Buxales and Trochodendrales sensu Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II) has been performed using several fossils as minimum age constraints. All rbcL sequences available in GenBank were sampled for the taxa in focus. Dating was performed using penalized likelihood, and(More)
Phylogenetic analyses have identified the water lilies (Nymphaeales: Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae), together with four other small groups of flowering plants (the 'ANITA clades': Amborellaceae, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, Austrobaileyaceae), as the first diverging lineages from the main branch of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree, but evidence of these groups(More)
With molecular analyses indicating that angiosperms are not closely related to any other extant seed plant group, information from fossils might provide the only basis for reconstructing their origin. Therefore the description of a new Early Cretaceous angiosperm, Archaefructus, placed as the sister of all extant angiosperms, has created much debate and(More)
In the second half of the nineteenth century, pioneering discoveries of rich assemblages of fossil plants from the Cretaceous resulted in considerable interest in the first appearance of angiosperms in the geological record. Darwin's famous comment, which labelled the 'rapid development' of angiosperms an 'abominable mystery', dates from this time. Darwin(More)
Gnetales comprise three unusual genera of seed plants, Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia. Their extraordinary morphological diversity suggests that they are survivors of an ancient, more diverse group. Gnetalean antiquity is also supported by fossil data. Dispersed "ephedroid" (polyplicate) pollen first appeared in the Permian >250 million years ago (Myr),(More)
Gnetalean compression-impression fossils are described from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation, Liaoning Province, north-eastern China, and assigned to six species of Liaoxia Cao et S.Q. Wu. The fossils have opposite-decussate phyllotaxis and cones comprising 2–12 pairs of bracts. Ovulate cones have seeds typically in a distal position. The species(More)
Knowledge on fossil and evolutionary history of the Gnetales has expanded rapidly; Ephedra and ephedroids as well as the Gnetum-Welwitschia clade are now well documented in the Early Cretaceous. However, hypotheses on evolutionary relationships among living and fossil species are hampered by restricted knowledge of morphological variation in living groups(More)
An Early Cretaceous angiosperm, Sinocarpus decussatus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, China, based on an infructescence fragment. It is probably ebracteate, consisting of one terminal fruit and two pairs of pedicellate lateral fruits arranged decussately. Carpels are probably borne on a small convex receptacle. There(More)
Over the past 25 years the discovery and study of Cretaceous plant mesofossils has yielded diverse and exquisitely preserved fossil flowers that have revolutionized our knowledge of early angiosperms, but remains of other seed plants in the same mesofossil assemblages have so far received little attention. These fossils, typically only a few millimetres(More)