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Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individual differences in mathematical competence.(More)
Several studies have revealed that persons with a lower IQ show more cortical activity when solving intelligence-related tasks than more intelligent persons do. Such results are interpreted in terms of neural efficiency: the more intelligent a person is, the fewer mental resources have to be activated. In an experiment with 31 experienced taxi drivers of(More)
Starting from controversies over the role of general individual characteristics (especially intelligence) for the attainment of expert performance levels, a comprehensive psychometric investigation of individual differences in chess expertise is presented. A sample of 90 adult tournament chess players of varying playing strengths (1311-2387 ELO) was(More)
The goal of our study was to localize the source of the stronger Stroop interference effect found in morphosyllabic readers as compared with alphabetic readers. Twenty-three Chinese and 24 German undergraduate students were tested in a Stroop paradigm with the following stimuli: color patches, color-neutral words (e.g.,friend printed in yellow), incongruent(More)
Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited(More)
Superior cognitive performance can be viewed from an intelligence perspective, emphasising general properties of the human information processing system (such as mental speed and working memory), and from an expertise perspective, highlighting the indispensable role of elaborated domain-specific knowledge and acquired skills. In exploring its(More)
Some learning theories see conceptual knowledge as a source of children's procedural knowledge. Others assume the opposite to be true or posit bi-directional causal relations. Empirical tests of these assumptions are hampered by the lack of knowledge on how to obtain valid measures of these two constructs. We assessed four different measures of both(More)
Interactions between conceptual and procedural knowledge influence the development of mathematical competencies. However, after decades of research, these interrelations are still under debate, and empirical results are inconclusive. The authors point out a source of these problems. Different kinds of knowledge and competencies only show up intertwined in(More)