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From their origin as an early alpha proteobacterial endosymbiont to their current state as cellular organelles, large-scale genomic reorganization has taken place in the mitochondria of all main eukaryotic lineages. So far, most studies have focused on plant and animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes (mtDNA), but fungi provide new opportunities to study highly(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous genomic parasites that have prompted the evolution of genome defense systems that restrict their activity. Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a homology-dependent genome defense that introduces C-to-T transition mutations in duplicated DNA sequences and is thought to control the proliferation of selfish(More)
Genomic regions that determine mating compatibility are subject to distinct evolutionary forces that can lead to a cessation of meiotic recombination and the accumulation of structural changes between members of the homologous chromosome pair. The relatively recent discovery of dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi can aid the understanding of sex(More)
Polyuronides are an acidic class of polysaccharides with interesting rheological and biological properties. However, except pectin and alginate, the structural variability of this class of polysaccharides is poor and low described in literature. In this context, a new generation of polyuronides has been isolated from two sources in the middle of the 90’s.(More)
Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium phytofermentans, an anaerobic soil bacterium, can directly convert plant biomass into biofuels. The genome of C. phytofermentans contains three loci with genes encoding shell proteins of bacterial microcompartments (BMC), organelles composed entirely of proteins. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS One of the BMC loci has homology to(More)
Parallels have been drawn between the evolution of nonrecombining regions in fungal mating-type chromosomes and animal and plant sex chromosomes, particularly regarding the stages of recombination cessation forming evolutionary strata of allelic divergence. Currently, evidence and explanations for recombination cessation in fungi are sparse, and the(More)
The disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986 was accompanied by the release of large amounts of radioisotopes, resulting in the contamination of extensive regions of the Ukraine, Byelorus and the Russian Federation. Cleanup workers (liquidators) and people living on land contaminated with radioactive materials were most exposed. To assess(More)
Host ecological traits may limit exposure to infectious disease, thereby generating the wide variation in disease incidence observed between host populations or species. The exclusion of disease by ecological traits may then allow selection to act against physiological defenses when they are costly to maintain in the absence of disease. This study(More)
The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development. We determined the haploid genome sequence for M.(More)