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OBJECTIVE The advent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drugs has provided rheumatologists with an effective, but highly expensive, treatment for the management of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to explore preclinically the application of camelid anti-TNF VHH proteins, which are single-domain antigen binding (VHH) proteins(More)
Members of the Camelidae family produce immunoglobulins devoid of light chains. We have characterized variable domains of these heavy chain antibodies, the VHH, from llamas immunized with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120 in order to identify VHH that can inhibit HIV-1 infection. To increase the chances of isolating(More)
An enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz/SIVmnd) antigens was designed using immunoreagents from naturally infected individuals, and compared to the commercially available Vironostika HIV-1 Antigen Microelisa System (Organon Teknika). The in-house(More)
In 1989, a new type of antibody was identified, first in the sera of dromedaries and later also in all other species of the Camelidae family. These antibodies do not contain a light chain and also lack the first constant heavy domain. Today it is still unclear what the evolutionary advantage of such heavy chain-only antibodies could be. In sharp contrast,(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder. Systemic treatment of IBD patients with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibodies has proven to be a highly promising approach, but several drawbacks remain, including side effects related to systemic administration and high cost of treatment. Lactococcus lactis(More)
INTRODUCTION The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ALX-0061 is a bispecific Nanobody® with a high affinity and potency for IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), combined with an extended half-life by targeting human serum albumin. We describe here the relevant(More)
A monoclonal antibody LMBH5 was derived from mice which had been immunized with A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2)-type recombinant, secreted hemagglutinin (HA), and were subsequently challenged with a potentially lethal dose of X31 [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) x A/PR/8/34 (H1N1)] virus. LMBH5 reacted strongly with the native and low-pH-induced conformations of the HA of(More)
A previous study on cross-clade neutralization activity, identified three key isolates, MNlab (envB/gagB; X4 coreceptor), VI525 (envG/gagH, envA/gagA; R5X4) and CA9 (Group O; R5), that allowed discrimination of sera, likely or unlikely to neutralize primary HIV-1 isolates belonging to Group M (env clades A-H) and Group O. The prognostic ability of these(More)
Accumulating data in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals support the hypothesis that in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates of different clades and phenotype (syncytium inducing [SI] and nonsyncytium inducing [NSI]) common antigenic structures must exist that can stimulate the immune response to produce a broad(More)