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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) is a subcortical neuropsychiatric syndrome that has increased in prevalence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Several studies demonstrated increased amyloidosis in brains of HIV patients and suggested that there may be a significant number of long-term HIV survivors with(More)
Recently, the term "inflammaging" was coined by Franceshci and colleagues to characterize a widely accepted paradigm that ageing is accompanied by a low-grade chronic up-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory responses. Inflammaging differs significantly from the traditional five cardinal features of acute inflammation in that it is characterized by a(More)
Prevalence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment is rising. Amyloid-beta (A-beta) plaque deposition in the brain may be a contributing factor as epidemiological data suggests significant numbers of long-term HIV survivors are at elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). HIV-1 Tat-induced A-beta deposition, tau phosphorylation, and subsequent(More)
Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) has infected an estimated 130 million people worldwide, most of whom are chronically infected. Infection is marked by both treatment- and non-treatment-related psychiatric symptoms. Symptoms associated with antiretroviral therapy, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), include acute confusional states, delirium, depression, irritability, and(More)
BACKGROUND Microglial activation, characterized by p38 MAPK or p44/42 MAPK pathway signal transduction, occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous studies demonstrated CD45, a membrane-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), opposed beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of p44/42 MAPK. Additionally we have shown(More)
In the current era of antiretroviral treatment, the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia is on the rise. Many past works have associated inflammation and neuronal loss with cognitive deficits inherent to the syndrome. Importantly, HIV-1 induced astrogliosis has been shown to play a central role in this process. Here we examined the effect of green tea(More)
Prevalence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment is rising, the worst form of which is HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The disease is fuiled by a chronic innate type proinflammatory response in the brain which is highly dependent upon the activation of microglia. We first created an in vitro model of HAD composed of cultured microglial cells synergistically(More)
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