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Human populations have experienced dramatic growth since the Neolithic revolution. Recent studies that sequenced a very large number of individuals observed an extreme excess of rare variants and provided clear evidence of recent rapid growth in effective population size, although estimates have varied greatly among studies. All these studies were based on(More)
'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution.(More)
This study addresses the question of how purifying selection operates during recent rapid population growth such as has been experienced by human populations. This is not a straightforward problem because the human population is not at equilibrium: population genetics predicts that, on the one hand, the efficacy of natural selection increases as population(More)
BACKGROUND The role that chromosomal rearrangements might have played in the speciation processes that have separated the lineages of humans and chimpanzees has recently come into the spotlight. To date, however, results are contradictory. Here we revisit this issue by making use of the available human and chimpanzee genome sequence to study the(More)
BACKGROUND Introns, which constitute the largest fraction of eukaryotic genes and which had been considered to be neutral sequences, are increasingly acknowledged as having important functions. Several studies have investigated levels of evolutionary constraint along introns and across classes of introns of different length and location within genes.(More)
UNLABELLED Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most widely used marker in studies to assess associations between genetic variants and complex traits or diseases. They are also becoming increasingly important in the study of the evolution and history of humans and other species. The analysis and processing of SNPs obtained thanks to(More)
Allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) appears to be an important factor in human phenotypic variability and as a consequence, for the development of complex traits and diseases. In order to study ASGE across the human genome, we have performed a study in which genotyping was coupled with an analysis of ASGE by screening 11,500 SNPs using the Mapping 10 K(More)
An increasing number of evidences show that genes are not distributed randomly across eukaryotic chromosomes, but rather in functional neighborhoods. Nevertheless, the driving force that originated and maintains such neighborhoods is still a matter of controversy. We present the first detailed multispecies cartography of genome regions enriched in genes(More)
Whole genome analysis in large samples from a single population is needed to provide adequate power to assess relative strengths of natural selection across different functional components of the genome. In this study, we analyzed next-generation sequencing data from 962 European Americans, and found that as expected approximately 60% of the top 1% of(More)
The allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed) and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources(More)