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This review summarizes knowledge on various aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycelial propagules, chlamydospores, and arthroconidia exhibit thermal dimorphism; arthroconidia are infectious in animals and, by electron microscopy, appear well provided for survival. The mycelial-to-yeast-phase transformation requires a strict control of glucan synthesis(More)
Stability of virulence in P. brasiliensis isolates was studied with respect to the in vitro culture history and methods used for storage. Virulence in yeast-form P. brasiliensis isolates was tested in a chronic pulmonary murine model of paracoccidiodomycosis where progression of disease was quantitated in terms of colony forming units recoverable from(More)
The objectives of this study were to: (i) see if granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) could protect bronchoalveolar macrophages (BAM) against suppression by dexamethasone (DEX) and (ii) test the combined effect of GM-CSF and DEX on lymphocyte responses. Murine BAM killed Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by 33 +/- 4% (mean +/- SD) in a(More)
It is well known that some micro-organisms synthesize proteins when stressed by heat or other factors. The function of these proteins is not yet clear, but some of them are believed to be related to resistance against a hostile environment. Histoplasma capsulatum is an intracellular pathogenic fungus that multiplies inside macrophages and resists macrophage(More)
Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured during the progression of chronic pulmonary and disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. The chronic disease was established by pulmonary infection of mice with different doses of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate GAP. Levels of antibodies to P. brasiliensis, detected in serum by(More)
Cell-mediated immune responses appear to be critical in the outcome of cryptococcosis. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) was studied for its potential use as a therapeutic agent because of its stimulation of natural killer cells and gamma interferon production by stimulated T cells and natural killer cells. Gamma interferon-activated macrophages are important in host(More)
Voriconazole (VCZ) was tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae alone or in combination with neutrophils or monocytes. Antifungal activity was measured as percent inhibition of hyphal growth in assays using the dye MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] or XTT [2,(More)
The fungicidal activity of murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils from the peripheral blood or elicited intraperitoneally with thioglycollate or with antigen in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-sensitized [corrected] or nonsensitized mice was studied. Although peripheral blood, thioglycollate-elicited, and antigen-elicited neutrophils from normal mice or(More)
The fungicidal capacity of murine pulmonary macrophages (PuM) activated in vitro with IFN or lymphokines or in vivo with IFN was studied. PuM treated overnight with IFN (1000 U/ml), Con A-stimulated spleen cell culture supernatants, or lymph node cells plus Con A significantly killed yeast cells of the Gar w isolate of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 45.5 +/-(More)
Heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY) used as a vaccine protects mice against systemic aspergillosis and coccidioidomycosis. Little is known about the immune response induced by HKY vaccination, consequently our goal was to do an analysis of HKY-induced immune responses involved in protection. BALB/c mice were vaccinated subcutaneously 3 times with(More)