Elmer Brummer

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This review summarizes knowledge on various aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycelial propagules, chlamydospores, and arthroconidia exhibit thermal dimorphism; arthroconidia are infectious in animals and, by electron microscopy, appear well provided for survival. The mycelial-to-yeast-phase transformation requires a strict control of glucan synthesis(More)
It is well known that some micro-organisms synthesize proteins when stressed by heat or other factors. The function of these proteins is not yet clear, but some of them are believed to be related to resistance against a hostile environment. Histoplasma capsulatum is an intracellular pathogenic fungus that multiplies inside macrophages and resists macrophage(More)
Collectins, collagenous carbohydrate-binding proteins (C-type lectins), are recognized as important factors in non-specific innate immune responses to pathogens. By binding surface carbohydrate structures of pathogens, collectins modify the interaction between pathogens and the immune system. We review the structure of the lung surfactant proteins (SP) SP-A(More)
Stability of virulence in P. brasiliensis isolates was studied with respect to the in vitro culture history and methods used for storage. Virulence in yeast-form P. brasiliensis isolates was tested in a chronic pulmonary murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis where progression of disease was quantitated in terms of colony forming units recoverable from(More)
This article provides information on the history of Blastomyces dermatitidis isolates and spontaneous mutants, the relationship with maintenance of cultures, and their virulence as quantified in murine models. Virulent isolates have been obtained from soil or from patients. Regardless of origin, mutants attenuated in virulence have sometimes arisen from(More)
The antifungal activity of voriconazole (VCZ) was tested against Candida albicans in the absence or presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) or monocytes. In some experiments, VCZ was compared to fluconazole (FCZ). On a weight basis, VCZ was 10-fold more efficacious than FCZ against C. albicans Sh27. Against an FCZ-resistant isolate, VCZ at 1(More)
A model of fatal acute pulmonary or chronic pulmonary and disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis was developed by intranasal challenge of young (3-4-week-old) mice with high doses (2.5-10 X 10(7) units) or low doses (0.1-1 X 10(7)) of yeast-phase Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Fatal acute paracoccidioidomycosis was dose dependent; 10, 5, and 2.5 X 10(7) viable(More)
An animal model of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis was established in male adult BALB/cByJIMR mice by intranasal instillation of different doses of yeast form Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The inoculum was standardized in terms of virulence, age of the culture, percentage of multicellular fungal units containing 1-3 cells, and viability. Progression and(More)
The fungicidal capacity of murine pulmonary macrophages (PuM) activated in vitro with IFN or lymphokines or in vivo with IFN was studied. PuM treated overnight with IFN (1000 U/ml), Con A-stimulated spleen cell culture supernatants, or lymph node cells plus Con A significantly killed yeast cells of the Gar w isolate of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 45.5 +/-(More)
Fungicidal activity of murine peritoneal macrophages for the yeast form of the dimorphic fungal pathogen P. brasiliensis was studied. Killing was assessed by reduction of colony forming units (CFU) using a new medium which has a good plating efficiency. Resident peritoneal macrophages phagocytosed but did not kill P. brasiliensis. Macrophages treated(More)