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The prediction of the outcome of individual patients with glioblastoma would be of great significance for monitoring responses to therapy. We hypothesise that, although a large number of genetic-metabolic abnormalities occur upstream, there are two 'final common pathways' dominating glioblastoma growth - net rates of proliferation (rho) and dispersal (D).(More)
We have extended a mathematical model of gliomas based on proliferation and diffusion rates to incorporate the effects of augmented cell motility in white matter as compared to grey matter. Using a detailed mapping of the white and grey matter in the brain developed for a MRI simulator, we have been able to simulate model tumours on an anatomically accurate(More)
Gliomas are brain tumours that differ from most other cancers by their diffuse invasion of the surrounding normal tissue and their notorious recurrence following all forms of therapy. We have developed a mathematical model to quantify the spatio-temporal growth and invasion of gliomas in three dimensions throughout a virtual human brain. The model(More)
Over the last 10 years increasingly complex mathematical models of cancerous growths have been developed, especially on solid tumors, in which growth primarily comes from cellular proliferation. The invasiveness of gliomas, however, requires a change in the concept to include cellular motility in addition to proliferative growth. In this article we review(More)
During the past two decades computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have permitted the detection of tumours at much earlier stages in their development than was previously possible. In spite of this earlier diagnosis the effects of earlier and more extensive treatments have been difficult to document. This failure has led to an(More)
Microcephaly and mental retardation have been principal features of the fetal alcohol syndrome. This article describes the neuropathologic findings in four human neonates who were exposed to large quantities of ethanol at frequent intervals during gestation. The findings suggest that intrauterine exposure to ethanol can result in structural abnormalities of(More)
A review of the literature revealed 623 cases of optic gliomas with sufficient information to permit actuarial (life-table) analysis concerning the prognosis of this disease by the patients' age, tumor site, treatment, and presence of concomitant neurofibromatosis or extension into the hypothalamus or ventricle. All of these factors are important. The(More)
Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors, characterized by their rapid proliferation and diffuse infiltration of the brain tissue. Survival patterns in patients with glioblastoma have been associated with a number of clinicopathologic factors including age and neurologic status, yet a significant quantitative link to in vivo growth(More)
Gliomas are uniformly fatal forms of primary brain neoplasms that vary from low- to high-grade (glioblastoma). Whereas low-grade gliomas are weakly angiogenic, glioblastomas are among the most angiogenic tumors. Thus, interactions between glioma cells and their tissue microenvironment may play an important role in aggressive tumor formation and progression.(More)