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The most straightforward theory of how phonologization interacts with Universal Grammar to determine typology is that UG defines the cognitively possible grammars ("hard" typology), while phonologization determines how frequent they are ("soft" typology). This paper argues instead that some soft typology has a cognitive source, and proposes a formal(More)
Artificial analogues of natural-language phonological patterns can often be learned in the lab from small amounts of training or exposure. The difficulty of a featurally-defined pattern has been hypothesized to be affected by two main factors, its formal structure (the abstract logical configuration of the defining features) and its phonetic substance (the(More)
These experiments investigate whether the perceptual boundary between [a] and [a:] is affected by the differing phonotactics of the Sino-Japanese and Foreign strata of the Japanese lexicon. We presented a range of edited natural vowels from [a] to [a:] at the end of carrier nonwords of the form [CoC'__] and asked subjects to judge whether the final vowel(More)
Over the past few decades, passwords as a means of user authentication have been consistently criticized by users and security analysts alike. However, password-based systems are ubiquitous and entrenched in modern society-users understand how to use them, system administrators are intimately familiar with their operation, and many robust frameworks exist(More)