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Mapping DNase I hypersensitive (HS) sites is an accurate method of identifying the location of genetic regulatory elements, including promoters, enhancers, silencers, insulators, and locus control regions. We employed high-throughput sequencing and whole-genome tiled array strategies to identify DNase I HS sites within human primary CD4+ T cells. Combining(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the short length of their reads, micro-read sequencing technologies have shown their usefulness for de novo sequencing. However, especially in eukaryotic genomes, complex repeat patterns are an obstacle to large assemblies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We present a novel heuristic algorithm, Pebble, which uses paired-end read information to(More)
SUMMARY An ultrafast DNA sequence aligner (Isaac Genome Alignment Software) that takes advantage of high-memory hardware (>48 GB) and variant caller (Isaac Variant Caller) have been developed. We demonstrate that our combined pipeline (Isaac) is four to five times faster than BWA + GATK on equivalent hardware, with comparable accuracy as measured by trio(More)
The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering ∼4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and(More)
A key component of the ongoing ENCODE project involves rigorous comparative sequence analyses for the initially targeted 1% of the human genome. Here, we present orthologous sequence generation, alignment, and evolutionary constraint analyses of 23 mammalian species for all ENCODE targets. Alignments were generated using four different methods; comparisons(More)
Comparative sequence analysis has become an essential component of studies aiming to elucidate genome function. The increasing availability of genomic sequences from multiple vertebrates is creating the need for computational methods that can detect highly conserved regions in a robust fashion. Towards that end, we are developing approaches for identifying(More)
With the recent completion of a high-quality sequence of the human genome, the challenge is now to understand the functional elements that it encodes. Comparative genomic analysis offers a powerful approach for finding such elements by identifying sequences that have been highly conserved during evolution. Here, we propose an initial strategy for detecting(More)
Understanding the early evolution of placental mammals is one of the most challenging issues in mammalian phylogeny. Here, we addressed this question by using the sequence data of the ENCODE consortium, which include 1% of mammalian genomes in 18 species belonging to all main mammalian lineages. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on an unprecedented amount(More)
PURPOSE To compare the gene expression profiles of normal human corneal endothelium with Fuchs' corneal endothelium, by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). METHODS Three pairs of normal human corneas were obtained from eye banks. Thirteen bisected Fuchs' corneal buttons were processed at the time of corneal transplantation. The endothelia of(More)
Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the(More)