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Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), or Turner syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess(More)
A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and(More)
Although shyness is associated with deficits in different aspects of face processing including face recognition and facial emotions, we know relatively little about the neural correlates of face processing among individuals who are shy. Here we show reduced activation to stranger faces among shy adults in a key brain area involved in face processing.(More)
INTRODUCTION Anxiety spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly prevalent psychiatric illnesses that affect millions of people worldwide. Strongly associated with stress, common ASDs include generalized anxiety disorder, panic, social anxiety, phobias and drug-abuse-related anxiety. In addition to ASDs, several other prevalent psychiatric illnesses represent(More)
BACKGROUND Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex genetic disorder with a variable clinical presentation that can include cardiac, neural, immunological, and psychological issues. Previous studies have measured elevated anxiety and depression in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbity of anxiety and depression is well established in the(More)
The most common human microdeletion occurs at chromosome 22q11.2. The associated syndrome (22q11.2DS) has a complex and variable phenotype with a high risk of schizophrenia. While the role of stress in the etiopathology of schizophrenia has been under investigation for over 30 years (Walker et al. 2008), the stress–diathesis model has yet to be investigated(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigates the relationship between anxiety symptoms and adaptive function in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). METHODS Seventy-eight children between 7 and 14 years of age with 22q11.2DS and 36 typically developing (TD) children without known genetic syndromes participated in a larger study of(More)
The shy-bold continuum is a fundamental behavioral trait conserved across human and nonhuman animals. Individual differences along the shy-bold continuum are presumed to arise from, and are maintained by, differences in the excitability of forebrain limbic areas involved in the evaluation of stimulus saliency. To test this hypothesis, the authors conducted(More)
Previous research has established that exposure to novel male mice can disrupt intrauterine implantation of fertilised ova in inseminated females and that much of this effect is mediated by factors in the male urine. The present studies were designed to examine whether the steroid content of male urine is sufficient to account for this effect. Pregnancy was(More)
The experiments described here were designed to determine whether males' capacity to accelerate female pubertal development is reflected in females' urinary steroid levels in mice, and whether steroids in males' urine are influenced by exposure to developing females. In the first experiment, measures from urine collected daily from female mice aged 31-59(More)