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Let G be an edge-colored connected graph. A path P is a proper path in G if no two adjacent edges of P are colored the same. If P is a proper u − v path of length d(u, v), then P is a proper u − v geodesic. An edge coloring c is a proper-path coloring of a connected graph G if every pair u, v of distinct vertices of G are connected by a proper u − v path in(More)