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The use of the mouse lethality assay for the estimation of the biologic activity of botulinum toxin was evaluated. The relationship between the number of animals, number of doses, and duration of the assay used to estimate the LD50 and the precision of the assay was investigated. The results of these studies demonstrated that the LD50 for botulinum toxin(More)
Although the LD50 has been used to quantify the biologically active toxin in clinical preparations of botulinum A toxin (Botox and Dysport), a discrepancy exists between the clinical potency of equivalent international units of different formulations of botulinum A toxin for multiple clinical indications. Our laboratory previously reported that a regional(More)
The use of Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is increasing in both clinical and basic science. Clinically, intramuscular injection of nanogram quantities of BoNT is fast becoming the treatment of choice for a spectrum of disorders including movement disorders such as torticollis, blepharospasm, Meige Disease, and hemifacial spasm (Borodic et al., 1991, 1994a;(More)
This paper presents a composite blind digital watermarking technique, CompMark, to hide a visually meaningful grayscale logo in a host image. The multi-resolution fusion principles are used to embed the grayscale logo in perceptually significant blocks in wavelet subbands of the host image. A modulus approach is further used to embed a binary counterpart of(More)
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