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This report is part of a series of research studies into alternative energy and resource pathways for the global economy. In addition to disseminating original research findings, these studies are intended to contribute to policy dialog and public awareness about environment-economy linkages and sustainable growth. All opinions expressed here are those of(More)
The effects of resistive loads applied at the mouth were compared to the effects of bronchospasm on ventilation, respiratory muscle force (occlusion pressure), and respiratory sensations in 6 normal and 11 asthmatic subjects breathing 100% O2. External resistive loads ranging from 0.65 to 13.33 cm H2O/liter per s were applied during both inspiration and(More)
The inspiratory phase of coughs often consists of large inspired volumes and increased motor discharge to the costal diaphragm. Furthermore, diaphragm electrical activity may persist into the early expiratory portion of coughs. To examine the role of other inspiratory muscles during coughing, electromyograms (EMG) recorded from the crural diaphragm (Dcr)(More)
The effects of stimulation of pulmonary C-fiber receptors on the distribution of motor activity to upper airway, rib cage, and abdominal muscles were studied in anesthetized, tracheotomized, spontaneously breathing dogs. Stimulation of pulmonary C-fiber receptors by injection of capsaicin (3-20 micrograms/kg) into the right atrium resulted in complete(More)
Airway tone can be modulated centrally by the brain as well as by peripheral receptors. In part these changes in airway caliber seem to be secondary to changes in respiratory activity. Since structures near the ventrolateral medullary surface (VMS) can produce profound effects on respiration, it seems reasonable to believe that they might also be capable of(More)
The benzodiazepines that have anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle-relaxant, and sedative-hypnotic properties affect respiration possibly by acting on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptors. This study investigated the effects of benzodiazepines diazepam and midazolam) applied topically to or microinjected just beneath the ventrolateral medullary(More)
Previous studies suggest that structures within 1 mm of the ventral surface of the medulla (VMS) are involved in the regulation of airway resistance. Furthermore, neurons containing tachykinin peptides have been observed near the surface of the VMS. In the present work, we examined the effects of mammalian tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A(More)
Structures located near the ventral surface of the medulla (VMS) affect both cardiovascular tone and respiratory activity. In addition cooling the intermediate area of the VMS blocks the increases in parasympathetic activity and tracheal tone resulting from ventilation with hypercapnic or hypoxic gas mixtures, or due to stimulation of mechanoreceptors(More)
To determine whether the responses of tracheal smooth muscle and the nasal vasculature to stimulation of lung C-fiber receptors depend on the level of respiratory drive, the effects of right atrial injection of capsaicin and phenyldiguanide were studied in chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats. Studies were performed while the(More)
The intermediate area of the ventral medullary surface (VMS) influences changes in airway tone caused by hypercapnia and intrapulmonary irritant receptor activation. These studies evaluated the effects of cooling the intermediate area of the VMS on the reflex hypoxic responses of the trachealis smooth muscle and of the phrenic nerve. Anesthetized, paralyzed(More)