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A common observation in studies of neuronal structure is that axons differ in the size of their synaptic boutons. The significance of this size variation is unclear, in part because we do not know how the size of synaptic boutons is related to their internal organization. The present study has addressed this issue by using three-dimensional reconstruction(More)
Hair bundles are critical to mechanotransduction by vestibular hair cells, but quantitative data are lacking on vestibular bundles in mice or other mammals. Here we quantify bundle heights and their variation with macular locus and hair cell type in adult mouse utricular macula. We also determined that macular organization differs from previous reports. The(More)
Multiple pathways for the transmission of visual information from retina to brain have been described in reptiles, but little is known about their functional organization. These parallel channels begin at the retina, and we have therefore begun to study the functional organization of retinal ganglion cells in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans. This(More)
Although knowledge of the fine structure of vestibular hair bundles is increasing, the mechanical properties and functional significance of those structures remain unclear. In 2004, Bashtanov and colleagues reported the contribution of different extracellular links to bundle stiffness. We simulated Bashtanov's experimental protocol using a three-dimensional(More)
As part of a project aimed at elucidating mechanisms of vestibulocollic control in the red-eared turtle Pseudemys scripta, we have calculated the planar relations of its semicircular canals using principal-components analysis. This information is prerequisite to understanding the pattern of canal activation that is set up by head movement of any spatial(More)
In this paper we characterize the architecture, histochemistry, spindle composition, and motor pool organization of rat dorsal neck muscles: splenius (SP), biventer cervicis (BC), and complexus (COM). We also consider whether individual rat neck muscles are innervated by more than one population of motor neurons as they are in turtles and cats and whether(More)
We have attempted to develop an objective, semiquantitative classification of fiber types in turtle neck and limb muscle using microphotometry and multivariate statistical techniques. We first stained serial sections for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (with acid and alkaline preincubation and without preincubation), NADH-diaphorase, and two(More)
Physiological studies in many vertebrates indicate that vestibular primary afferents are not a homogeneous population. Such data raise the question of what structural mechanisms underlie these physiological differences and what functional role is played by afferents of each type. We have begun to answer these questions by characterizing the architecture of(More)
Recent evidence suggests that ganglion cell size and its regional variation may be an important feature of vertebrate retinas. Accordingly, we have examined Nissl-stained, whole-mounted Pseudemys scripta retinas to determine the soma size spectrum of ganglion cells at different retinal loci. Cell size histograms reveal that at any given point on the retina,(More)
1. We visualized the central axons of 32 vestibular afferents from the posterior canal by extracellular application of horseradish peroxidase, reconstructed them in three dimensions, and quantified their morphology. Here we compare the descending limbs of central axons that differ in parent axon diameter. 2. The brain stem distribution of descending limb(More)