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Grazing experiments were performed with the zooplankters Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna feeding on nitrogen-and phosphorus-limited cells of two green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Selenastrum cupricor-nutum). To analyze the role of the cell wall structure in digestibility of the algae by Daphnia, the same experiments were carried out with both(More)
Biomanipulation improved water transparency of Lake Zwemlust (The Netherlands) drastically. Before biomanipu-lation no submerged vegetation was present in the lake, but in summer 1987, directly after the measure, submerged macrophyte stands developed following a clear-water phase caused by high zooplankton grazing in spring. During the summers of 1988 and(More)
1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the typology and of lower grades of status (good, moderate, poor and(More)
The allelopathic activity of the aquatic macrophyte, Stratiotes aloides, was determined with laboratory experiments. Active compounds exuded in the medium or present in plant tissue were extracted using standard procedures and solid phase extraction (SPE). The activity towards various cyanobacteria and chlorophytes was tested in two different bioassay(More)
Although many lake restoration projects have led to decreased nutrient loads and increased water transparency, the establishment or expansion of macrophytes does not immediately follow the improved abiotic conditions and it is often unclear whether vegetation with high macrophyte diversity will return. We provide an overview of the potential bottlenecks for(More)
The allelopathic potential of exudates from the aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides on the growth of phytoplankton was investigated. A selection of phytoplankton species, occurring in habitats similar to that of Stratiotes, was used: two cyanobacterial strains (toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa), one green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) and one(More)
In order to disentangle the causes of variations in water chemistry among European shallow lakes, we performed standardised sampling programs in 86 lakes along a latitudinal gradient from southern Spain to northern Sweden. Lakes with an area of 0.1 to 27 000 ha and mean depth of 0.4–5.6 m located in low to high altitudes were investigated within the EC(More)
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all aquatic ecosystems in their member states should reach 'good' ecological quality by 2015. To assess ecological quality, the WFD requires the definition of reference conditions using biological, physical and chemical indicators and the assignment of each water body to one of five quality classes(More)