Ellen Yu-Lin Chien

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The adenosine class of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediates the important role of extracellular adenosine in many physiological processes and is antagonized by caffeine. We have determined the crystal structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor, in complex with a high-affinity subtype-selective(More)
Chemokine receptors are critical regulators of cell migration in the context of immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. The G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. Here we report five independent crystal structures of CXCR4 bound to an antagonist small molecule IT1t and a(More)
The role of cholesterol in eukaryotic membrane protein function has been attributed primarily to an influence on membrane fluidity and curvature. We present the 2.8 A resolution crystal structure of a thermally stabilized human beta(2)-adrenergic receptor bound to cholesterol and the partial inverse agonist timolol. The receptors pack as monomers in an(More)
Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the(More)
The c-Kit proto-oncogene is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase associated with several highly malignant human cancers. Upon binding its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), c-Kit forms an active dimer that autophosphorylates itself and activates a signaling cascade that induces cell growth. Disease-causing human mutations that activate SCF-independent(More)
Systematic efforts to understand membrane protein stability under a variety of different solution conditions are not widely available for membrane proteins, mainly due to technical problems stemming from the presence of detergents necessary to keep the proteins in the solubilized state and the background that such detergents usually generate during(More)
Production of structure-grade mammalian membrane proteins in substantial quantities has been hindered by a lack of methods for effectively profiling multiple constructs expression in higher eukaryotic systems such as insect or mammalian cells. To address this problem, a specialized small-scale eukaryotic expression platform by Thomson Instrument Company(More)
Infrared spectra of heme-bound CO in sperm whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin and two mutants (H64L and H97F) were studied in the pH range from 4.2 to 9.5. Comparison of the native protein with the mutants shows that the observed pH effects can be traced to protonations of two histidine residues, H64 and H97, near the active site. Their imidazole sidechains(More)
A simple and direct analysis of the spatial distribution of childhood leukemia was performed using geographic data from a large case/control study. The data consist of cases of childhood leukemia and their corresponding birth cohort controls located in seven San Francisco Bay Area counties. Both parametric and randomization analyses show no evidence of a(More)
Double-pulse flash photolysis experiments on solutions of carbonmonoxymyoglobin (MbCO) are used to determine the time scale for protein conformational averaging. The interconversion times for transitions between the "open" and "closed" subpopulations of MbCO are found to be 10(-6)-10(-4)s, depending on solvent composition and temperature. In aqueous(More)