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A major challenge to successful antiviral therapy is the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. Recent studies have developed several automated analyses of HIV sequence polymorphism based on calculations of selection pressure (K(a)/K(s)) to predict drug resistance mutations. Similar resistance analysis programs for HCV inhibitors are not currently available.(More)
Cleavage of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein by the viral NS3 protease releases functional viral proteins essential for viral replication. Recent studies by Foy and coworkers strongly suggest that NS3-mediated cleavage of host factors may abrogate cellular response to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) (E. Foy, K. Li, R. Sumpter, Jr., Y.-M. Loo, C. L.(More)
An issue of clinical importance in the development of new antivirals for HCV is emergence of resistance. Several resistance loci to ketoamide inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease have been identified (residues V36, T54, R155, A156, and V170) by replicon and clinical studies. Using SCH 567312, a more potent protease inhibitor derived from SCH 503034(More)
Small-molecule hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors such as boceprevir (SCH 503034) have been shown to have antiviral activity when they are used as monotherapy and in combination with pegylated alpha interferon and ribavirin in clinical trials. Improvements in inhibitor potency and pharmacokinetic properties offer opportunities to increase drug(More)
While new direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been approved, there is a continued need for novel antiviral agents that act on new targets and can be used in combination with current therapies to enhance efficacy and to restrict the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants. To this end, we have(More)
Inspection of over 250 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome sequences shows that a threonine is strictly conserved at the P1 position in the NS3-NS4A (NS3-4A) autoproteolysis junction, while a cysteine is maintained as the P1 residue in all of the putative trans cleavage sites (NS4A-4B, NS4B-5A, and NS5A-5B). To understand why T631 is conserved at the NS3-4A(More)
Riboswitches are non-coding RNA structures located in messenger RNAs that bind endogenous ligands, such as a specific metabolite or ion, to regulate gene expression. As such, riboswitches serve as a novel, yet largely unexploited, class of emerging drug targets. Demonstrating this potential, however, has proven difficult and is restricted to structurally(More)
Herein we describe our research efforts around the aryl and heteroaryl substitutions at the aminal carbon of the tetracyclic indole-based HCV NS5A inhibitor MK-8742. A series of potent NS5A inhibitors are described, such as compounds 45-47, 54, 56, and 65, which showed improved potency against clinically relevant and resistance associated HCV variants. The(More)
Boceprevir (SCH 503034) is an orally active novel inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease currently in clinical development for the treatment of hepatitis C. In this in vitro study, we demonstrate that combination of boceprevir with a nucleoside analog or a non-nucleoside HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor was superior to treatment by single agents(More)
The selection of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) against single agents administered to patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) necessitates that direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) targeting multiple viral proteins be developed to overcome failure resulting from emergence of resistance. The combination of grazoprevir (formerly(More)