Ellen V. Sigal

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Traditional drug licensing approaches are based on binary decisions. At the moment of licensing, an experimental therapy is presumptively transformed into a fully vetted, safe, efficacious therapy. By contrast, adaptive licensing (AL) approaches are based on stepwise learning under conditions of acknowledged uncertainty, with iterative phases of data(More)
Despite prodigious advances in tumor biology research, few tumor-biomarker tests have been adopted as standard clinical practice. This lack of reliable tests stems from a vicious cycle of undervaluation, resulting from inconsistent regulatory standards and reimbursement, as well as insufficient investment in research and development, scrutiny of biomarker(More)
The proceedings of a workshop focusing on a project to evaluate the use of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a tool to measure treatment response in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are described. Sponsored by the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, the Foundation of the National Institutes of Health, and the National Cancer Institute, and(More)
This study explores the historic use of different endpoints to support regular and accelerated approval of cancer drugs between 2002 and 2012. In the past 10 years, two thirds of oncology regular approvals were based on endpoints other than overall survival. More than three quarters of accelerated approvals were based on response rates. The accelerated(More)
As diagnostic tests become increasingly important for optimizing the use of drugs to treat cancers, the co-development of a targeted therapy and its companion diagnostic test is becoming more prevalent and necessary. In July 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration released a draft guidance that gave the agency's formal definition of companion diagnostics(More)
The Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP, S1400) is a groundbreaking clinical trial designed to advance the efficient development of targeted therapies for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. There are no approved targeted therapies specific to advanced lung SCC, although The Cancer Genome Atlas project and similar studies have detected a significant(More)
Disclosures: Richard L. Schilsky: None; Jeff Allen: None; Joshua Benner: None; Ellen Sigal: None; Mark McClellan: None. The content of this article has been reviewed by independent peer reviewers to ensure that it is balanced, objective, and free from commercial bias. No financial relationships relevant to the content of this article have been disclosed by(More)
The US Food and Drug Administration is often criticized as inefficient compared to its European counterpart, the European Medicines Agency. This criticism is especially common in the field of oncology, where severely ill patients have few therapeutic options. We conducted a direct drug-to-drug comparison of the two regulatory agencies' approvals of new(More)
In July 2012, Congress passed the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). The Advancing Breakthrough Therapies for Patients Act was incorporated into a Title of FDASIA to expedite clinical development of new, potential "breakthrough" drugs or treatments that show dramatic responses in early-phase studies. Using this regulatory(More)
At the 2010Conference onClinical Cancer Research, held on October 20, 2010, in Washington, DC, co-convened by Friends of Cancer Research and the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform at the Brookings Institution, participants explored 4 pressing challenges in the field. Articles summarizing the panel’s recommendations on each of these topics are featured(More)