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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a central role in vertebrate reproduction. The evolutionary origin of this neuropeptide and its receptor is not obvious, but the advent of genomics makes it possible to examine the roots of GnRH and delve deeper into its ancestral relationships. New peptide sequences identified in invertebrates from annelids to(More)
Glutamine synthetase, an enzyme generally associated with ammonia detoxication in the vertebrate brain and with hepatic nitrogen turnover in mammals, shows substantial activities in the gastrointestinal tract of teleostean fishes. Enzyme activity is highest in the central area of the stomach and reveals a distinct distribution pattern in stomach and along(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor are essential for reproduction in vertebrates. Although there are three major types of GnRH peptides and two major types of receptors in vertebrates, the pattern of distribution is unusual. Evidence is presented from genome mining that type I GnRHRs are not restricted to mammals, but can be found in the(More)
Mutations in the GnRH receptor gene (GNRHR) can result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans. Unlike most mammals, mice lack a second form of GnRH (GnRH2) and a type 2 GnRH receptor. To determine whether the GnRH receptor is critical at all stages of reproduction and whether this receptor has additional physiological functions in developing and adult(More)
Glutamine synthetase (GSase) is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism and encoded by a single gene in mammals. Using PCR cloning techniques, including RT-PCR from total RNA and PCR from a cDNA library, we find evidence of four expressed GSase mRNAs for the tetraploid rainbow trout. For two of these mRNAs (Onmy-GS01, -GS02) we characterize the full-length(More)
ALTHOUGH Maisin and Picard (1924) induced cancer of the bladder by implanting pellets containing tar into the bladders of rats, Bonser, Clayson and Jull (1951) developed the technique of bladder implantation in mice, which as modified by Allen, Boyland, Dukes, Horning and Watson (1957) has been widely used. The method can be employed to indicate whether a(More)
One hundred and eighty-four cases of malignant melanoma of the lids and epibulbar region were seen in the Radiotherapy Department of the Royal Marsden Hospital during the period 1943-74. Some of these tumours were radiosensitive and could thus be treated by radiotherapy without loss of the affected eye. Their clinical and histological features are(More)
The activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) in the active a-form (GPase a) is dependent on the hydration state of hepatocytes. We establish that GPase a catalysis in catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) hepatocytes is a function of medium osmolarity and that a linear relationship exists between GPase a activity and osmolarity between 254 mosmol l(-1) and 478(More)
IN previous investigations where bladder implantation in the mouse was used 1958) the pellets were made either from molten paraffin wax or compressed cholesterol. Wax had the disadvantage that the chemicals under test were heated to 70 to 850 C. for several minutes and may thus have undergone decomposition before their introduction into the bladder.(More)
Sex differences in brain function underlie robust differences between males and females in both normal and disease states. Although alternative mechanisms exist, sexual differentiation of the male mammalian brain is initiated predominantly by testosterone secreted by the testes during the perinatal period. Despite considerable advances in understanding how(More)