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Knowledge of the rate and nature of spontaneous mutation is fundamental to understanding evolutionary and molecular processes. In this report, we analyze spontaneous mutations accumulated over thousands of generations by wild-type Escherichia coli and a derivative defective in mismatch repair (MMR), the primary pathway for correcting replication errors. The(More)
By sequencing the genomes of 34 mutation accumulation lines of a mismatch-repair defective strain of Escherichia coli that had undergone a total of 12,750 generations, we identified 1625 spontaneous base-pair substitutions spread across the E. coli genome. These mutations are not distributed at random but, instead, fall into a wave-like spatial pattern that(More)
We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using ΦC31 integrase,(More)
Sea urchins are widely used to study both fertilization and development. In this study we combine the two fields to examine the evolution of reproductive isolation in the genus Heliocidaris. Heliocidaris tuberculata develops indirectly via a feeding larva, whereas the only other species in the genus, H. erythrogramma, has evolved direct development through(More)
Evolutionary change in developmental mode in sea urchins is closely tied to an increase in maternal provisioning. We examined the oogenic modifications involved in production of a large egg by comparison of oogenesis in congeneric sea urchins with markedly different sized oocytes and divergent modes of development. Heliocidaris tuberculata has small eggs(More)
Four genes expressed during the period of vitelline membrane formation are clustered within 8 kb of DNA in region 26A of the second chromosome. Temporal and quantitative difference in the profiles of accumulated RNA suggest that the genes are independently regulated although they are selectively expressed during the stages of vitelline membrane(More)
We describe the Hox cluster in the radially symmetric sea urchin and compare our findings to what is known from clusters in bilaterally symmetric animals. Several Hox genes from the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma are described. CHEF gel analysis shows that the Hox genes are clustered on a < or = 300 kilobase (kb) fragment of DNA,(More)
A complete understanding of evolutionary processes requires that factors determining spontaneous mutation rates and spectra be identified and characterized. Using mutation accumulation followed by whole-genome sequencing, we found that the mutation rates of three widely diverged commensal Escherichia coli strains differ only by about 50%, suggesting that a(More)
To investigate the bases for evolutionary changes in developmental mode, we fertilized eggs of a direct-developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, with sperm from a closely related species, H. tuberculata, that undergoes indirect development via a feeding larva. The resulting hybrids completed development to form juvenile adult sea urchins. Hybrids(More)
The adult sea urchin central nervous system (CNS) is composed of five radial nerve cords connected to a circular nerve ring. Although much is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of the nervous systems of many invertebrate and vertebrate species, virtually nothing is known about these processes in echinoderms. We have(More)