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Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food and feed. Several of these mycotoxins have been associated with human and animal diseases. Fusarium species, found worldwide in cereals and other food types for human and animal consumption, are the most important toxigenic fungi in northern temperate(More)
The in vitro effect of combinations of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined using purified lymphocytes from six piglets. Dose-response curves for each mycotoxin and mycotoxin(More)
Biased selection can threaten the viability of multiple choice health systems unless payments to particular plans are adjusted to offset risk differences among employees. We report the results of a study designed to predict medical care utilization and expenditures for groups of fee-for-service plan (FFS) and health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollees,(More)
The present findings suggest that the trend toward greater diversification of hospital services is likely to be most strongly influenced by state Medicaid policies and certain hospital characteristics. Increasing Medicaid eligibility and payment levels is likely to have a positive effect on services diversification. Growth in the number of inpatient(More)
Physicians who participate in preferred provider organizations (PPOs) usually agree to various types of utilization review and sometimes discount their charges or agree to accept lower fees. This study was performed to determine whether they provided more or fewer services to their PPO patients than to their indemnity patients and whether the discounting(More)
Lythrum salicaria L., purple loosestrife, an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods failed to provide long-term control. Therefore, four host-specific insect species (two leaf feeders, a root feeder, and a flower feeder) were introduced as biological control agents. To(More)
Throughout the past decade, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were buffeted by dramatic regulatory and competitive changes. In this article, literature of the 1980s is reviewed to update our knowledge on the HMO industry and to suggest future research. The influence of intensified competition on these organizations and the determinants of market(More)
The secondary metabolites of 24 isolates of Fusarium avenaceum from Norwegian cereals and grown on rice have been characterized. Moniliformin (MON), enniatins (ENNs), and beauvericin (BEA) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK15, American Type Culture Collection) were used to study the cytotoxicity of(More)