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"Weight of Evidence" (WoE) approaches are often used to critically examine, prioritize, and integrate results from different types of studies to reach general conclusions. For assessing hormonally active agents, WoE evaluations are necessary to assess screening assays that identify potential interactions with components of the endocrine system, long-term(More)
BACKGROUND There is an ongoing discussion on the provenance of toxicity testing data regarding how best to ensure its validity and credibility. A central argument is whether journal peer-review procedures are superior to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) standards employed for compliance with regulatory mandates. OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the rationale(More)
EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) was implemented in 2009-2010 with the issuance of test orders requiring manufacturers and registrants of 58 pesticide active ingredients and nine pesticide inert/high production volume chemicals to evaluate the potential of these chemicals to interact with the estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone systems.(More)
In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed the Food Quality Protection Act and amended the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requiring the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to implement a screening program to investigate the potential of pesticide chemicals and drinking water contaminants to adversely affect endocrine pathways. Consequently, the EPA launched(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate used to produce epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. Although BPA degrades rapidly in the environment with aquatic half-lives from 0.5 to 6 d, it can be found in aquatic systems because of widespread use. To evaluate potential effects from chronic exposure, fathead minnows were exposed for 164 d to nominal(More)
Weight of evidence (WoE) approaches are recommended for interpreting various toxicological data, but few systematic and transparent procedures exist. A hypothesis-based WoE framework was recently published focusing on the U.S. EPA's Tier 1 Endocrine Screening Battery (ESB) as an example. The framework recommends weighting each experimental endpoint(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume substance primarily used to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. During manufacture and use, BPA may enter wastewater treatment plants. During treatment, BPA may become adsorbed to activated sludge biosolids, which may expose soil organisms to BPA if added to soil as an amendment. To evaluate(More)
A rigorous approach to evaluating the reliability and relevance of experimental methods and results is critical for making appropriate, scientifically sound decisions. A literature evaluation framework was modified and adapted based on criteria described by Klimisch et al. (H. J. Klimisch, M. Andrae, and U. Tillman, 1997, Reg. Tox. Pharm. 25, 1-5) and(More)
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is used in personal care products and industrial applications. The authors summarize the risks to the environment from D5 based on multiple lines of evidence and conclude that it presents negligible risk. Laboratory and field studies show that D5 is not toxic to aquatic organisms or benthic invertebrates up to its(More)