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OBJECTIVE The lack of an accepted standard for measuring cognitive change in schizophrenia has been a major obstacle to regulatory approval of cognition-enhancing treatments. A primary mandate of the National Institute of Mental Health's Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative was to develop a consensus(More)
To stimulate the development of new drugs for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) established the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. This article presents an overview of decisions from the first MATRICS consensus conference. The goals of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Because reduction of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia does not result in adequate community functioning, efforts have shifted to other areas, such as cognitive impairment. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires that drugs for cognition enhancement in schizophrenia show improvement on two distinct outcome measures in clinical trials: an(More)
OBJECTIVE On April 23, 2004, a joint meeting of the FDA, NIMH, MATRICS investigators, and experts from academia and the pharmaceutical industry was convened to develop guidelines for the design of clinical trials of cognitive-enhancing drugs for neurocognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD Experts were asked to address specific(More)
OBJECTIVE The consensus cognitive battery developed by the National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH's) Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative includes 10 independently developed tests that are recommended as the standard battery for clinical trials of cognition-enhancing interventions for(More)
People with schizophrenia frequently have significant problems in community functioning. Progress in developing effective interventions to ameliorate these problems has been slowed by the absence of reliable and valid measures that are suitable for use in clinical trials. The National Institute of Mental Health convened a workgroup in September 2005 to(More)
The developmental toxicities of caffeine and 13 metabolites, including theophylline, and paraxanthine and a synthetic methylxanthine analogue 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX) were evaluated using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX). Young X. laevis embryos were exposed to these compounds in each of two separate concentration-response(More)
Short-term static-renewal studies were performed on Xenopus laevis embryos with 16 selected test materials from day 50 (stage 60) to day 64 (stage 66) (14-day test) to evaluate effects on tail resorption and thyroid function. Of the 16 test materials, nine were found to inhibit significantly the rate of tail resorption, four were found to stimulate(More)
There is an urgent need to transform basic research discoveries into tools for treatment and prevention of mental illnesses. This article presents an overview of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) programs and resources to address the challenges and opportunities in psychiatric drug development starting at the point of discovery through the(More)
Cadmium (Cd), boric acid (BA) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) were evaluated for reproductive and developmental toxicity in Xenopus laevis. Eight reproductively mature adult male and eight superovulated female Xenopus laevis were exposed to at least five separate sublethal concentrations of each material via the culture water for a period of 30(More)