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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We sought to build models that address questions of interest to patients and families by predicting short- and long-term mortality and functional outcome after ischemic stroke, while allowing for risk restratification as comorbid events accumulate. METHODS A cohort of 451 ischemic stroke subjects in 1999 were interviewed during(More)
Like leptin, the pancreatic hormone insulin is an important adiposity signal to the brain. We report that the hypothalamic melanocortin system is an important target of the actions of insulin to regulate food intake and body weight. Hypothalamic neurons expressing insulin receptors were found to coexpress the melanocortin precursor molecule(More)
An important mechanism for large-scale interactions between cortical areas involves coupling between the phase and the amplitude of different brain rhythms. Could basal ganglia disease disrupt this mechanism? We answered this question by analysis of local field potentials recorded from the primary motor cortex (M1) arm area in patients undergoing(More)
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has a critical role in the control of feeding and drinking. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced primarily in the LH, and agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced exclusively in the arcuate (ARC), an area that innervates the LH. We(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A are orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitters produced primarily in the lateral hypothalamus. Because two other hypothalamic peptides, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, increase food intake by a mechanism that depends on activation of opioid receptors, we assessed whether MCH or orexin-A also elicits(More)
OBJECT The role of postoperative radiation therapy after surgery for atypical meningiomas remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors examine the recurrence rates for atypical meningiomas after resection (with or without adjuvant radiotherapy) and identify which factors were associated with recurrence. METHODS Of 90 patients(More)
OBJECT Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established technique for the treatment of several movement disorders in adults. However, the technical approach, complications, and results of DBS in children have not been well documented. METHODS A database of DBS implantations performed at a single institution, prospectively established in 1998, was reviewed(More)
OBJECTIVE Quantifying stroke severity is essential for interpreting outcomes in stroke studies; severity impacts outcomes. Because outcome studies often enroll patients some time after stroke and there is little standardization of the history and physical examination, objective measurement of stroke severity is limited. A method for retrospectively scoring(More)
Obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for a number of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin has been suggested to function as one of the adiposity signals to the brain for modulation of energy balance. Administration of insulin into the brain reduces food intake and body weight, and mice with a genetic deletion of(More)
OBJECT Vagal nerve stimulators (VNSs) have been used successfully to treat medically refractory epilepsy. Although their efficacy is well established, appropriate management of infections is less clearly defined. In the authors' experience, patients who have gained a benefit from VNS implantation have been reluctant to have the device removed. The authors(More)