Ellen L. Air

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Like leptin, the pancreatic hormone insulin is an important adiposity signal to the brain. We report that the hypothalamic melanocortin system is an important target of the actions of insulin to regulate food intake and body weight. Hypothalamic neurons expressing insulin receptors were found to coexpress the melanocortin precursor molecule(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A are orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitters produced primarily in the lateral hypothalamus. Because two other hypothalamic peptides, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, increase food intake by a mechanism that depends on activation of opioid receptors, we assessed whether MCH or orexin-A also elicits(More)
An important mechanism for large-scale interactions between cortical areas involves coupling between the phase and the amplitude of different brain rhythms. Could basal ganglia disease disrupt this mechanism? We answered this question by analysis of local field potentials recorded from the primary motor cortex (M1) arm area in patients undergoing(More)
OBJECT Frameless stereotactic biopsy has been shown in multiple studies to be a safe and effective tool for the diagnosis of brain lesions. However, no study has directly evaluated its safety in lesions located in eloquent regions in comparison with noneloquent locations. In this study, the authors determine whether an increased risk of neurological decline(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can noninvasively detect in vivo white matter (WM) abnormalities on the basis of anisotropic diffusion properties. We analyzed DTI data retrospectively to quantify the abnormalities in different WM regions in children with hydrocephalus during early infancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventeen infants(More)
The pancreatic hormone, insulin, has been hypothesized to be an important regulator of food intake. Consistent with this hypothesis is the finding that exogenous insulin, in doses that do not affect blood glucose, reliably suppresses food intake and body weight. However, previous experiments have utilized a long-term delivery paradigm, in which insulin is(More)
S troke affects more than 700,000 individuals each year; it is the third largest cause of death and the largest cause of adult disability in the U.S. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of stroke, yet this risk is not realized or understood by patients with diabetes. This likely reflects a lack of understanding within the medical community(More)
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has a critical role in the control of feeding and drinking. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced primarily in the LH, and agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced exclusively in the arcuate (ARC), an area that innervates the LH. We(More)
OBJECT The goal in this study was to compare the integrity of white matter before and after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion by evaluating the anisotropic diffusion properties with the aid of diffusion tensor (DT) imaging in young children with hydrocephalus. METHODS The authors retrospectively identified 10 children with hydrocephalus who(More)
OBJECT The role of postoperative radiation therapy after surgery for atypical meningiomas remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors examine the recurrence rates for atypical meningiomas after resection (with or without adjuvant radiotherapy) and identify which factors were associated with recurrence. METHODS Of 90 patients(More)