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Although hyperkinesis is expressed in several neurological disorders, the biological basis of this phenotype is unknown. The mouse mutant coloboma (Cml+) exhibits profound spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity resulting from a deletion mutation. This deletion encompasses several genes including Snap, which encodes SNAP-25, a nerve terminal protein involved in(More)
Primary episodic ataxias are autosomal dominant channelopathies that manifest as attacks of imbalance and incoordination. Mutations in two genes, KCNA1 and CACNA1A, cause the best characterized and account for the majority of identified cases of episodic ataxia. We summarize current knowledge of clinical and genetic diagnosis, genotype-phenotype(More)
Complementary interacting molecules on myelin and axons are required for long-term axon-myelin stability. Their disruption results in axon degeneration, contributing to the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a minor constituent of central and peripheral nervous system myelin, is a member of the Siglec family of(More)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary twisting movements and postures. There are many different clinical manifestations, and many different causes. The neuroanatomical substrates for dystonia are only partly understood. Although the traditional view localizes dystonia to basal ganglia circuits, there is increasing recognition that(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized pathologically by degeneration of catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus coeruleus, among other regions. Autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (ARJP) is caused by mutations in the PARK2 gene coding for parkin and(More)
Tottering (tg) is an autosomal recessive mutation of the calcium channel alpha1A subunit in the mouse that results in epileptic spike and wave discharges, mild ataxia and paroxysmal episodes of involuntary spasms of the limbs, trunk and face. These convulsions have been especially difficult to characterize because of their unpredictable occurrence and lack(More)
Chronic treatment of rats with SCH23390 (0.5 mg/kg/day s.c.), a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist, for 21 days resulted in an increase in D1 dopamine receptors but produced no change in D2 dopamine receptors. During habituation to locomotor activity cages the rats treated chronically with SCH23390 showed significantly higher locomotor activity than controls(More)
The Cacna1a gene encodes the α1A subunit of voltage-gated CaV2.1 Ca2+ channels that are involved in neurotransmission at central synapses. CaV2.1-α1-knockout (α1KO) mice, which lack CaV2.1 channels in all neurons, have a very severe phenotype of cerebellar ataxia and dystonia, and usually die around postnatal day 20. This early lethality, combined with the(More)
The tottering mouse is an autosomal recessive disorder involving a missense mutation in the gene encoding P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The tottering mouse has a characteristic phenotype consisting of transient attacks of dystonia triggered by stress, caffeine, or ethanol. The neural events underlying these episodes of dystonia are unknown.(More)
INTRODUCTION Dystonia is a neurological disorder associated with twisting motions and abnormal postures, which compromise normal movements and can be both painful and debilitating. It can affect a single body part (focal), several contiguous regions (segmental), or the entire body (generalized), and can arise as a result of numerous causes, both genetic and(More)