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In a preliminary effort to improve the early diagnosis of dementia, we developed a regression-based method for estimating premorbid intelligence measured by the ability to read irregular words from the American version of the Nelson Adult Reading Test (AMNART). Using errors on the AMNART and years of education, a model for predicting current verbal(More)
In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examined the temporal unfolding of declining performance on tests of episodic memory (Free Recall on the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test), executive function (Category Fluency, Letter Fluency, and Trails), and Verbal Intelligence (Nelson, 1982; American Version of the Nelson Adult Reading Test(More)
Enhanced cued recall provides a simple and clinically useful memory test for identifying dementia in the elderly. Because this test induces semantic processing and coordinates encoding and retrieval for maximum recall, genuine memory deficits due to impairment of specific memory processes can be distinguished from apparent memory deficits due to use of(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relative rates of dementia in initially nondemented subjects with and without memory impairment defined by baseline free recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding (FCSR) test. BACKGROUND Our approach to identifying persons at high risk for future dementia is to show the presence of memory impairment not caused by other(More)
We assessed the relationships of performance on memory and mental status tests and neuropathologic stage of Alzheimer's disease as defined by Braak and Braak in 29 patients from a prospective clinicopathologic series. We predicted that memory changes would occur at an earlier Braak stage than mental status changes. Staging was accomplished by matching the(More)
The present work explored the loss of semantic attributes that is said to occur in dementia. In the first two experiments, subjects had to select attributes that went with concepts like airplane and church. The finding that demented subjects maintained high levels of accuracy when selecting attributes suggested that the semantic content of their concepts(More)
An 82 year old musician with Alzheimer's disease (AD) showed a preserved ability to play previously learned piano compositions from memory while being unable to identify the composer or titles of each work. He also showed a preserved ability to learn the new skill of mirror reading while being unable to recall or recognise new information. Both anterograde(More)
Falls and impaired gait are a major source of morbidity in the elderly. Why some elderly become prone to falling is often unclear. We analyzed the gait, equilibrium, and brain computed tomography results of 40 elderly subjects without evidence of neurologic disease known to be associated with falls. Twenty of these subjects were prone to falling and the(More)
This study was undertaken to demonstrate that a property of verbs, implicit causality, is an important factor in determining coreference of potentially ambiguous anaphoric pronouns in a timed comprehension task. Subjects were required to decide the coreferentiality of a pronoun in pairs of sentences such as John telephoned Bill because he withheM some(More)