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Cognition is 1 of 4 domains measured by the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH-TB), and complements modules testing motor function, sensation, and emotion. On the basis of expert panels, the cognition subdomains identified as most important for health, success in school and work, and independence in daily functioning(More)
In the past 15 years, both human and animal studies have advanced our understanding of the effects of adolescent alcohol exposure on behavioral and neural development, particularly in the areas of the ontogeny of initial sensitivity and tolerance to alcohol, the consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure on subsequent drinking patterns, as well as(More)
Sex differences in patterns of drinking and rates of alcohol abuse and dependence begin to emerge during the transition from late puberty to young adulthood. Increases in pubertal hormones, including gonadal and stress hormones, are a prominent developmental feature of adolescence and could contribute to the progression of sex differences in alcohol(More)
Thiamine-deprived rhesus monkeys exhibited a pattern of impairments in spatial-reversal learning and in recognition of highly familiar items reminiscent of certain memory deficits shown by Wernicke-Korsakoff patients. Postmortem examination in these experimental animals showed neuronal degeneration in the basal ganglia, the parafascicular nucleus of the(More)
Rhesus monkeys were subjected to one, two, or four periods of thiamine deficiency to determine how the number of deprivation episodes affects the development and progression of neurological and neuropathological changes. Recurrent thiamine deprivation produced all major neurological signs and most of the anatomical lesions found in Wernicke-Korsakoff(More)
Learning ability was examined in a group of female adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa, and in groups of demographically similar depressed inpatients, diabetic outpatients, and healthy normal subjects. Results showed that the group of anorectic females was significantly impaired on a difficult symbol-digit paired-associate learning test, but did(More)
This paper reviews the ontogeny of neurotransmitter systems and neuropharmacological challenge within transmitter systems and discusses the actions of alcohol on such systems during the juvenile through adolescent periods. To place the animal research within the context of human development, an attempt is made to first examine some fundamental principles of(More)
Adult patients with left, right, or bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy or absence epilepsy, and normal controls completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), a standardized questionnaire of aggressive tendencies. Patients with left temporal lobe seizure foci scores higher on the Suspicion scale than did other patients or controls (p < 0.05). Factor(More)
Thiamine deficiency in the monkey is the animal counterpart of Wernicke's disease in humans. In the present study, thiamine deficiency was induced in 11 monkeys while three monkeys were given paired feedings supplemented by thiamine hydrochloride and three monkeys were maintained on regular chow. The typical clinical symptoms were apathy, inattention to(More)
Male and female rats were administered ethanol (5% v/v) in a liquid diet for 18 weeks. Pair-fed control animals were fed the same diet except that dextrose was substituted isocalorically for ethanol. Normal controls received a commercial laboratory chow for the same duration. Results showed that, in females, chronic ingestion of an ethanol liquid diet(More)
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